Second Worldwide SEAA Conference, 6-9 July 2000, University of Durham, England: Abstracts A–M
Abstracts of Papers presented A–M
ALLARD Francis (University of Pittsburgh), "Funerary Rites and Social Organization in the Neolithic of Gansu, China"
Archaeologists divide the late 4th and 3rd millennium BC in Gansu Province into a series of successive archaeological cultures known as Majiayao, Banshan and Machang. The large cemetery at Liuwan offers a welcome opportunity to explore social change during this period through its expression in funerary rites. Over the course of the third millennium BC, we witness at Liuwan an apparent gradual increase in the level of social complexity, as revealed by increasingly large graves that contain large numbers of artifacts. Of note is the nature of the wealthy burial assemblages, which tend to contain many similar ceramic storage vessels, with many of these possibly made specifically for the funeral. In contrast, the wealthy Longshan Culture graves of the middle and lower stretches of the Yellow River valley typically contain a variety of cooking, drinking and serving vessels, reflecting the complexity of the tomb occupant's social relationships in life. This paper explores the sociopolitical implications of the contrast between these two different types and expressions of social complexity.
BAE Kidong (Hanyang University), "Acheulian-like Handaxe Stone Industries from the Hantan-Imjin River Basin, Korea and Its Implications of Paleolithic Archaeology of East Asia"
Since 1978 the time when the first handaxes were found at the Chongokni site, Acheulian-like heavy duty components have been collected from several localities along the Hantan-Imjin river basin in the central part of Korea. Owing to these finds, there have been a little heated arguments regarding the validity of the Movius' hypothesis and new explanation of Palaeolithic tradition was suggested. There are also new attempts to reclassify so-called "large triangular heavy duty tool" into "handaxe" in China. However, Palaeolithic stone industries in East Asia still remain different from those in Euro-African region in several points. First, the number of handaxes from one locality is very small, not over 10% of total number found at one locality. Second, they look crude because of limited secondary retouch. The most immediate question that should be pursued is why such differences exited. Difference of raw material could be only partial answer. Difference of physical type of hominid may not be relevant answer for the difference. Ecological and behavioral approaches would provide much plausible explanation. Probably expansion of forest toward north in late Middle Pleistocene and the early Upper Pleistocene and nature of edible vegetable food in temperate zone with high seasonality would give some clues for appearance of the characteristic heavy duty components in East Asia.
BALE Martin (University of British Columbia, Canada) "Dam Salvage Archaeology in South Korea: The Nam River-Chinju Area Dam Project"
Large scale economic and infrastructure development in South Korea have benefited some university archaeology departments, museums, and private institutes in terms of funding for emergency excavation projects and production of prehistoric knowledge. The Korean Office of Cultural Properties uses a council of prominent academic archaeologists and museum officials who distribute permits for investigations which are funded by developers and government. This paper is about Korean cultural resource management ideas and dam projects. The Nam River Area has seen such activity for more than twenty years and is used as a case study to illustrate the winners and losers inside and outside the archaeology community when such projects are undertaken.
BOLDIN Vladislav (Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the People of the Far East Vladivostok), "Archaeological Data for Koguryo Influence on the Culture of Bohai"
Excavation of Bohai sites in the Primorski territory, in Russia, makes it possible to assert that the Koguryo people, whose state originally occupied land later belonging to Bohai and a part of whom were to be integrated into the Bohai population, exerted considerable influence on the economy and culture of the Bohai people.Evidence for this can be seen in a variety of domains, including town-construction and architecture (mountain fortress-refuges, details of defensive constructions, stone wells), agricultural implements (cast iron plough shares, sickles), and ceramic wares (vessels with horizontal handles, steam cooking vessels with holes in the base, etc.).
BYINGTON Mark (Harvard University), "Claiming the Koguryo Heritage: Territorial Issues in the Archaeological Management of Koguryo Sites in Northeast China"
The state of Koguryo (traditional dates 37 BC to 668) at the peak of its power occupied or controlled vast territories ranging from the Liao River to the eastern seaboard of Manchuria and Korea and extending southward past today's Seoul, territories that included lands now held by both Korea's and the People's Republic of China. Current scholarship on Koguryo and the interpretation of its historical legacy are, not surprisingly, characterized by widely divergent viewpoints influenced by the ideologies and opposing historiographies of both Koreas and the PRC. Such circumstances have resulted in fierce competition for the historical heritage of Koguryo and have determined how archaeologists in northeast China interpret the nature of Koguryo ethnic and cultural constitution. While scholars in both Koreas maintain the longstanding belief that Koguryo is an integral part of Korea's past, Chinese scholars have insisted that Koguryo should rightly be included as part of the greater Han Chinese polity of ancient times. Historians and archaeologists in China therefore tend to downplay Koguryo's relationship to later Korean (and Manchu) peoples and states, particularly those of Parhae (698-926) and Koryo (918-1392).
This paper will begin by reviewing the opposing historiographical interpretations of Koguryo prominent in pre-modern Korea and Manchuria, and will continue by discussing in detail how the conflicting views mentioned above have come to affect the management of Koguryo archaeological sites in northeast China. I will include a discussion on how increased visits of South Korean tourists to Northeast China since 1992 has led to academic friction between the two countries and prompted defensive reactions from Chinese scholars and politicians. Next I will describe the renewed debate concerning the ethnicity of ancient inhabitants of Manchuria, wherein new Chinese theories maintain that the ethnic "lineage" of which the Koguryo people were a part became extinct with the fall of Koguryo, indicating that the Koguryo people were not ancestral to modern Koreans. My treatment will be confined to the responses of archaeologists and historians in the PRC to this increasingly complex situation of competing ethnic and political agendas by focusing primarily on turning points in the past decade that have influenced the current interpretations of Koguryo's historical legacy.
CHEN Pochan (UCLA) and Rowan K. FLAD (UCLA), "Excavations at Zhongba, A Neolitic through Early Han Period Salt Production Site in the Eastern Sichuan Basin"
The site of Zhongba is located on a tributary river to the Yangzi in the county of hong Xian, about 200 km downstream from Chongqing. Extensive excavations at the site began in 1997 under the auspices of the Sichuan Institute of Archaeology and during the 1999-2000 season, members of the UCLA-Peking University Project on the Archaeology of Early Salt Production in the Sichuan Basin and Surrounding Areas conducted excavations at the site. These excavations focused on elucidating the environmental changes in the region over the long history of the site, connecting the remains at the site with the production of salt, identifying the scale and organization of the production of salt at the site during different periods, and examining the relationship of the site with other nearby contemporary sites in what was a complex economic system. This talk will outline the current research at the site and present some preliminary findings based on work during the 1999-2000 season.
CHEN Xingcan (Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing), "Salt and Copper: Preliminary Investigations in Southern Shanxi"
As a part of the research project "Early State Formation and the Procurement of Natural Resources in China", Dr. Li Liu and I did preliminary investigations in the Zhongtiao Mountains and the Hedong salt lake in southern Shanxi in September 1999. This paper briefly reports our survey results. In order to test our hypothesis that the Dongxiafeng site was related to the production, storage and transportation of salt, we obtained soil samples from a Shang architectural foundation for chemical analysis and examined some ceramics excavated from the site. The results of the investigations at several sites in the Zhongtiao Mountains and along the Yellow River support our initial hypotheses on the procurement of resources by the early states. Copper deposits in the Zhongtiao mountains may have been explored by the Xia and Shang people; and two early Bronze Age sites on the northern bank of the Yellow river (Yuanqu Shangcheng and Qianzhuang) may have played an important role in securing the transportation of natural resources, especially copper and salt, from southern Shanxi.
CHILDS-JOHNSON Elizabeth (NYU), "Ba Shu Archaeology and the Three Gorges Project"
The greatest problem threatening the Chinese version of "Cultural Heritage Management" in the Three Gorges of the Yangzi River (Long River) is a lack of funding and manpower. As is now well-known, the Three Gorges Dam being built on the middle reaches of China's Yangzi river is the largest and most expensive hydroelectric project ever undertaken in the world. In l992 the National People's Congress approved construction of the Three Gorges Dam. Construction began in 1994 and in March of that year the Three Gorges Construction Committee (abbreviated San Jian Wei) designated two units to undertake responsiblity for preservation of archaeological sites in the Three Gorges Dam area of eastern Sichuan and western Hubei. Yu Weichao, then Director of the Chinese History Museum in Beijing (and Professor of Chinese Archaeology, Beijing University), was put in charge of "underground archaeology/dixia" and the China Cultural Relics Research Institute, headed by Zhang Wenbin (Director of the China Cultural Relics Bureau) was put in charge of "above ground/dishang" preservation in the Three Gorges.
Since November of 1995 Yu and committee members worked with the The Three Gorges Construction Committee (San Jian Wei), an administrative unit appointed by the government based in Beijing, on a proposal and the San Jian Wei agreed to allocate 10 million renminbi or under $1 million dollars, not even close to the $212 million (3-5% of total dam outlay) needed. In 1995/96 the dam reached a cost of $15 billion so the international standard for providing for archaeological preservation reached $500 to 625million. Only $37.5 million was alloted and this allotment was tied to population relocation funds for dispersal. Told to forget about international standards for relics preservation, Yu Weichao and others were forced to agree to work with an unrealistic budget. The major problems of cultural management thus are financial and because of the finances and a just budding major world economy, the other major problem is a lack of trained manpower. Currently there is only $64 million committed by the San Jianwei to above and below ground archaeology (half of which is $37 million), and thus perhaps only $20,000-$40,000 for individual site preservation and excavation. Since the funds are classified as part of the allotment for population relocation, serious fraud has ensued and consequently few of these funds make it to the units responsible for excavation and preservation. A review of current sites under excavation and how cultural heritage is managed indicates that archaeology and preservation are seriously hampered, due to the priority of technology and national pride at the expense of cultural heritage. As Yu has proposed and I support, the establishment of a Three Gorges Cultural Relics Protection Foundation that could operate as a nongovernmental organization is desperately needed.
CHIOU-PENG TzeHuey (University of New Mexico), "Early Bronze Kettledrums in Southwest China and Southeast Asia"
The author examines available bronze kettledrum specimens in the Wanjiaba-style (named after a typesite in Central Yunnan) and interprets the role this rudimentary drum type played in ancient Southwest China and Southeast Asia. The investigation concludes with information inconsistent with what was previously believed regarding the evolution of early bronze kettledrums: the Wanjiaba drum had represented the earliest stage of a unilinear stylistic progression originating in Central Yunnan, and this archaic drum type was eventually replaced by the mature Heger I drum, which was the hallmark item at both the Dian site in eastern Yunnan and the Dongson site in Vietnam. Current data, instead, indicate that the Wanjiaba drum may have been used in parallel with the Heger I drum as an important ritual object in chiefdom societies. The Wanjiaba drum as well as the Heger I drum has provided insights pertaining to studies of cultural interactions among the kettledrum communities in and around the Dian and Dongson spheres. However, in areas away from these two centers, bronze kettledrums possibly were regarded solely as prestige items. For example, the notation of kettledrum, upon its transportation into Thailand and regions further south, likely had completely divorced from its original ritualistic contexts. The Wanjiaba-style drums discovered in Thailand soil, in particular, possibly have functioned as valuable commodities in conjunction with acquisitions of metal materials channeled along the riverine passages. These Thailand artifacts, as prestige items, additionally delineated the commercial activities conducted in a large ancient trading network.
CHOE Chong Pil (Sejong University), "Development of Prehistoric Agriculture in Korea"
Archaeologists and paleobotanists have been slow to advance integrated enviro-technical models that account for Korea's incipient experimentation with millet and rice horticulture during the middle Neolithic period (3500-2000 B.C). Most previous students have concluded that the agricultural complex consisting of both plants and cultivation techniques was simply diffused to Korea by means of cultural stimulus or migration from North China. My research advances an alternative in situ model for incipient Korean horticulture. Archaeological evidence indicates that peoples of the western and eastern areas in the Korean peninsula had established a stable, non-horticultural food economy during the early neolithic period (6000-3500 B.C.). In the western area, this economy was based largely upon wild plant collecting and animal hunting, The eastern area, on the other hand, reflects a littoral adaptation to fish and marine molluscs. Adaptation efforts in both areas supported semi-permanent settlements and an increase in human population. Millet horticulture first appeared in the western area from about 4000-3000 B.C., but only as an addition to the hunting and gathering diet that had been followed for thousands of years. Rice cultivation introduced about 2000 B.C. through the continental route. The climatic change and population pressure are discussed as probable factors leading to the earliest korean experiences with plant cultivation.
CHOU Adam (Flemington, NJ), ""Peking Man's" Role in Hominid Evolution"
The importance of Peking Man's role in human evolution has never been fully explored. Since Homo erectus, hominids dominated the animal world with the possession of tools and fire. Further development of the brain was unnecessary for competing with other animals and for the survival of human species. My research has shown that competition among hominids is the key leading to the need of larger brainpower. In addition, manipulation of our heads for toolmaking and vocal communication for social interaction are some of the ingredients demanding additional brain capacity with associated physiological changes of our anatomy. Lowering of the vocal box is only one example of such changes. These developments could not happen overnight. They occurred gradually over a very long period of time, such as >from the later stage of Homo erectus to the appearance of modern man. This span of time can largely be studied based on data related to Peking Man. Their long occupancy of the Zhoukoudian cave, the impact of their use of fire and the significant increase in their cranial capacity suggest that Peking Man and his contemporaries could play an important role in the human evolution four to two hundred thousand years ago. The needed time for physiological changes and the development of human skills must occur during this period. It is my conclusion that Peking Man played a very significant role in the evolution of hominids.
DENES Laurence (Chavonne, France), "Shapes and Decorations of Ceramics at the 3rd and 4th Centuries AD in South-west Korea : Comparisons Between Cholla-do and Ch'ungch'ong-do Productions"
The paddled ceramics excavated, especially from funeral contexts, in Cholla-do and Ch'ungch'ong-do, dating around the AD 3rd-5th centuries, have been analysed in detail considering their shapes and decorative patterns. In this paper, I will present the ceramics of each region, insisting on morphological and stylistic aspects, in order to display what constitutes the standard of south-western ceramics and, on the contrary, what forms the regional features. One of my objectives is to study how the common ceramics of Cholla-do reflect the originality of the big jar-coffins that characterise the elite burials of this region.
EDWARDS Walter (Tenri University, Japan), "Contested Access: Issues Surrounding Japan's Imperial Tombs"
When the Meiji Government was born in 1868, intent on remaking Japan into a modern nation, its leaders were equipped with a highly serviceable symbol on which to build a strong national identity. For the imperial house claimed continuity across an unbroken line of more than one hundred twenty monarchs, stretching back to myth- shrouded claims of divine origin. The first nationalistic use of this institution was in fact made by the ancient Japanese state, which had drawn up the official history of the ruling line by the early eighth century, while instituting a system of state-supported care for tombs of royal ancestors. The system broke down during the chaotic medieval period, and concern over the condition of ancient imperial tombs served as focal point for a new surge of nationalistic fervor in the early nineteenth century. In addition to ultimately forcing the country's samurai rulers to restore authority to the emperor, this movement also prompted the designation and repair of many ancient tumuli as early imperial tombs. The Meiji Government continued this program of special care for the tombs, and in the 1930s these and other sacred sites associated with the imperial line were used in campaigns to secure public support for expansionary militaristic policy. At the same time, a general ban on the investigation of all such tumuli hampered the development of prewar archaeological research. Restrictions on access to the imperial tombs continue to apply even today, fueling a postwar controversy whose intensity reflects historic uses of these monuments in the support of nationalism.
von FALKENHAUSEN Lothar (UCLA) and Li Shuicheng (Peking University), "Salt Archaeology and its Potential in East Asia"
In Europe, ancient salt production is one of the oldest fields of inquiry in prehistoric archaeology, the earliest pertinent studies having been published in the eighteenth century. Salt archaeology also has a distinguished, albeit more recent, history in Japan. In China, the field is still in its infancy, although pertinent sites have recently come to the attention of specialists. From their excavation, one may expect significant new insights. China does offer an abundance of written documents concerning salt production, with reliable evidence going back to ca. the fourth century BC, but most of the extant texts are concerned with the administration of the salt monopoly. Archaeological work promises to complement this information by furnishing evidence on the technology, social context, and environmental impact of the ancient salt industry, as well as permitting to trace back its origins to prehistoric times.
von FALKENHAUSEN Lothar (UCLA), "Shangma. Reflections on Demography and Social Differentiation in a Late Bronze Age Cemetery in Shanxi"
The large Zhou period cemetery at Shangma (also known as Shangmacun) in Houma city, Shanxi province (China), is the first in China to have been excavated with the intention of recovering the totality of buried remains, rather than merely a sample sufficient to clarify the chronology. The 1387 published tombs document a relatively complete mortuary population, spanning some eighteen generations between ca. 850 and 430 B.C. This period is known, of course, through historical sources, but the archaeological finds are important for documenting relatively low-ranking groups and individuals. The human skeletal materials from Shangma permit inferences on the size and the demographic makeup of the community from which the burial population of the cemetery was drawn. Even though Shangma represents so far but a single, isolated case, it provides data on demographic and social issues that may prove significant as a basis for comparison with evidence from other north Chinese communities during the Late Bronze Age.
FLAD Rowan (UCLA) "Animal Sacrifice and Mortuary Patterns: Contemporary Burial Programs in Early Bronze Age Inner Mongolia"
Offering some trajectories for future research, this paper builds on research written up in my MA thesis and in a paper presented to the 1999 annual meetings of the Society for American Archaeology. In that previous work I concentrated specifically on the burial program at the site of Dadianzi in Inner Mongolia. In the present paper, I discuss two broader anthropological issues that are relevant to the Dadianzi remains: the identification of contemporary social groups that engage in distinct burial behaviors at the same cemetery, and the practice of animal sacrifice together with its social and ritual roles.
FUJIO S. (Nat. Museum Japanese History), "Who Played the Most Important Part
in the Formation of Yayoi Culture?"
There are two main theories regarding who played the most important role in the formation of Yayoi culture. One theory is that it was the indigenous Jomon people, the other argues that it was immigrant peoples. As a result of my research, I find that these groups played different roles in the formation of Yayoi culture. Indigenous people played their part in industry and the production of paddy fields, and immigrant people developed the social system, ideology and religion. Consequently, it is not correct that we emphasize the role of one side only.
GELMAN Eugenia (Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the People of the Far East Vladivostok), "Trade ceramics from Bohai sites in Russian Primorye"
Trade ceramics unearthed in Bohai sites of Russian Primorye are represented by Yue ware, Xing ware, green and three-color (sancai) lead-glazed wares. The presence of these artifacts makes it possible to outline a much wider region than was previously known for the spread of Chinese trade ceramics during the Tang period. We can also trace the probable routes followed in the transport of these ceramics to the southern part of Russian Primorye. With the help of various analyses of the glazes and bodies of these wares, different stages in their production have been investigated.
GLOVER Ian (Archaeology Institute, University of London), "Publishing in South-east Archaeology/Prehistory: The Changing Role of "Foreign" vs. "Local " Archaeologists"
All the countries of Southeast Asia were subjected to strong cultural influences from the maritime counties of Western Europe, and most came under their direct political control, at various times from the late 16th to the 19th century. Scholarly interest in the past of these countries, and especially archaeological research into their past developed from the mid 19th century and was strongly influenced by the traditions and concerns of the various colonising countries. This paper discusses the goals and theory of archaeology conducted Southeast Asia during the colonial era and the changes it underwent after countries in this region gained their independent. It is concluded by addressing the inter-regional conference which convened in September 1999 at the University Sains, Pinang, Malaysia. This conference was organized with the specific aim of trying to map the future development of archaeology in Southeast Asia. Some foreign archaeologist were present, but for the first time took a back seat and this event perhaps marks the coming of age of a genuinely Southeast Asian archaeology.
GRENVILLE Jane (University of York, UK), "Cultural Meaning in Japanese Minka"
Recent approaches to the study of vernacular and polite architecture in the UK have sought to establish the range of cultural meanings within buildings and the mechanisms by which these are transmitted to their users and manipulated by them. Buildings are seen as active rather than passive carriers of meaning - their form defines not only basic function but also the range of acceptable behaviours within them. Various methods have been used to advance this line of study, including access analysis and the application of structuration theory.
This paper seeks to apply such thinking to the study of Japanese minka of the Edo period for two purposes. The first is to assess whether they are in fact culturally specific and do not translate easily into a different cultural milieu. The second is to attempt to understand the cultural meanings of minka by comparing examples of different dates and geographical locations. Is it possible to say more about a structure than the simple fact that it was occupied by fishermen or by horse breeders? How might different groups use their houses to reinforce identity and social structure?
HISHIDA Tetsuo (Kyoto Prefectural University), "Hierarchy as Seen in Tumulus Cluster in the Seventh Century--Excavation of the Higashiyama Tumulus Cluster in Hyogo"
It is generally a well-accepted theory that tumuli of the Kofun Period were a symbol of social and political status. This is clearly the case at the Higashiyama tumulus cluster where we see a good correlation between the size of corridor style burial chambers and the kinds of prestige goods deposited in the chambers. As a result, I can distinguish the tomb of a higher-class leader from subordinate members of the elite. Since the tomb of the high-class leader was built earliest in this cluster, I suspect that the social order had originally existed before the construction and that the order was maintained throughout the construction of the entire tumulus cluster in the seventh century. I also argue that the class of people from which county magistrate was selected were buried in the tumulus cluster because in the vicinity of the tumulus cluster were the sites of a presumably late-seventh-century governmental office compound and of a late-seventh century Buddhist temple.
HOLLENWEGER Richard (Berne), "The Transmission of Buddhist Architecture in East Asia: on the Importance of the Buddhist Architecture of the Korean Three Kingdoms Period"
Buddhism is traditionally said to have been introduced to the Korean peninsula in the late 4th century AD. The Buddhist architectural traditions of the states of Koguryo (trad. dates 37 BC - 668 AD) and Paekche (trad. 18 BC - 660 AD) were introduced there directly from the Chinese mainland, together with the Buddhist doctrines. While many typical Chinese architectural elements were shared by the Buddhist rchitectures of both Korean kingdoms (eg. site selection, polar organisation, wooden skeleton structure, tile roofs, etc.), the differences in temple layouts and the building types of the central pagodas indicate rather that the Buddhist architectures of the two ingdoms originated from different Buddhist architectural traditions in China (probably a "northern" and a "southern" tradition) which seem to have been distinct up to the Northern Wei dynasty (386-534 AD). The Buddhist architectures of Ancient Silla (trad. dates 57 BC - 668 AD) and early Japan, however, represent a later stage of development, characterised by a combination of elements of various traditions including those of Koguryo and Paekche, and possibly some additional Chinese ones which are still largely unknown. The excavations of Koguryo Buddhist sites in modern North Korea have revealed temple complexes whose main characteristics were a central octagonal pagoda and multiple image halls surrounding it. The known temples of Paekche, on the other hand, featured exclusively square pagodas and a single image hall placed behind it. It has frequently been supposed that these two layout types were stages in a unique architectural tradition. A closer study of the excavated sites, the construction methods and materials and the historical records seems to indicate on the contrary that the two "styles" were largely independent from each other. No combinations of these "styles" are known from either of the two kingdoms and only the later remains of temples from Ancient Silla and Japan could lead to this erroneous interpretation.
The Buddhist architecture of the Three Kingdoms period in Korea provides a unique perspective on the early Chinese Buddhist architecture prior to the Northern Wei dynasty, suggesting the existence of important regional differences there, and balancing the conventional conclusions which suppose that early Chinese (and Korean) Buddhist architecture was largely identical to that of Japan. It indicates the need for a reappraisal of the development and transmission of Buddhist architecture from China to Korea and Japan, and is thus crucial for a deeper understanding of the material culture and architecture of early East Asian Buddhism.
HORLYCK Charlotte (SOAS), "A Study of the Relationship Between Bronze Mirrors and Mortuary Practises of the Koryo Period"
A large number of bronze mirrors have been excavated as well as looted from tombs dating to the Koryo period (AD 918-1392), suggesting that the custom of using mirrors as funeral gifts was extremely popular at this time. This paper explores whether the presence of mirrors in Koryo tombs can be linked to the social status of the interred, and which function they may have served within the mortuary rituals of this time. A number of burial sites where mirrors have been excavated are analyzed in detail. First, the social status of the tomb occupants is determined by means of the geographical location and construction of the burials. Second, a quantitative analysis of the funeral goods is put forward. The final part of the paper tentatively compares the results with the ways in which mirrors were used in contemporary Chinese burials.
HUDSON Mark (Tsukuba), "Hayato Ethnogenesis and the Yamato State"
Existing theories of Hayato ethnogenesis have stressed the retention of ethnic difference through social and geographical isolation. A primordial view of ethnicity has also led to a largely uncritical acceptance of the Hayato as an ethnic group with origins somewhere in Southeast Asia. In contrast, this paper argues that interaction between southern Kyushu and the Yamato state was the main cause of Hayato ethnogenesis, and that the evidence for a Southeast Asian origin for this group is weak. The paper develops my earlier work on the Hayato in Ruins of Identity and addresses recent criticisms of that work by Japanese scholar Fumio Kakubayashi.
IKAWA-SMITH Fumiko (McGill University), "Japanese Archaeology at the Millennium"
At the millennium, we can review the major accomplishments of fieldwork in all periods of early history of the Japanese island chain. During the past decade or so, the following topics, among others, have interested Japanese archaeologists: the study of the peopling of Japan, the emergence of the state and nationalism, and relationship with cultures on the mainland. These issues, as well as the methodological and theoretical framework of current debated among Japanese archaeologists will be reviewed in this talk.
IVLIEV Alexander (Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the People of the Far East Vladivostok), "Archaeological Evidence for Qidan Presence in the Primorski Region"
Up until now, there has been no archaeological data unambiguously proving the presence of the Qidan in the Territory of Primorski in the 10th and 11th centuries AD. The discovery in 1998 of a characteristic Qidan ceramic vessel at Kraskino, an ancient town in the Khasanskiy district of Primorski, makes it possible to speak about Qidan presence there in the 10th century. It also allows us, in the light of information contained in the "Liao shi", to put forward new interpretations related to peculiarities of fortification as well as the dating of this ancient town identified with the Yanzhou circuit of the state of Bohai.
IM Hyo-jai (Seoul National University), "New Discoveries in the Korean Neolithic Archaeology"
One of the most significant recent discoveries in the Korean Neolithic archaeology is the excavation of the Kosanni site in Cheju Island. This early Neolithic site is dated to between 10000 and 6000 B.C., filling a significant current chronological gap between the late Palaeolithic Age and the Neolithic Age and shedding some light on this important transition period. Another important discovery was made recently when carbonized rice remains were recovered from cultural deposits in the Kimpo area of central Korea and dated to aroun 2000 B.C. This discovery provided an important clue for the study of rice cultivation in Korean Peninsula. In addition to the two conventional hypotheses on rice dissemination routes, another possibility is strongly suggested on the basis of these and other carbonized rice remains discovered in the Kimpo and surrounding area.
KANG Bong-won (Kyung Hee University), "Mortuary Practices and Social Stratification During the Three Kingdoms Period (5-7th centuries AD) in Central Korea"
Archaeological excavations conducted in 1998 at the Haguhri site in central Korea have uncovered 37 burials and some mortuary offerings such as pottery, gilt bronze earrings, and a few small bronze and iron bells. Although a couple of radiocarbon dates from the site place the burials between 1200 and 1400 AD, they are believed to have been built at some time between the fifth and seventh centuries AD (i.e., the Late Three Kingdoms period in Korea). According to the archaeological data, mortuary practices at the site changed over time from multiple burials (side-entrance stone chamber tomb) to single burials. This paper investigates the mortuary behavior at the site and attempts to explain 'how' and 'why' it changed over time. Furthermore, special attention is given to examining the relationship between energy expenditure and social stratification based on stylistic variation among the burials discovered at the site.
KAPLAN Alex (La Trobe University, Melbourne), "State Control and Ceramic Production: Preliminary Findings from Yanshi Shangcheng"
In the latter half of the second millennium BC highly complex state-level society emerged in China's Yellow River basin. These archaic states are represented by the cities at Erlitou, Yanshi, Zhengzhou and Anyang, marking the onset of China's Bronze Age and urbanisation of its northern Central Plains landscape. Archaic states are characterised by the emergence of a high degree of centralised control in the socio-economic organisation of production. This control is manifest in economic specialisation and can have a direct impact on craft specialisation. Excavation at Yanshi Shangcheng has revealed specialised ceramic workshops and what appears to be mass-produced, highly-standardised pottery with a wide distribution within and outside the city walls. While intuitive assessments of the ceramics at Erlitou and Yanshi Shangcheng suggest ceramic production is becoming an increasingly specialised and tightly-controlled state craft, the scale and mode of production and distribution, and degree of standardisation, have not been systematically investigated. This paper will discuss current research at Yanshi Shangcheng which aims to measure degrees of standardisation and variation within the ceramic assemblage by using an attribute-based approach to ceramic analysis - ultimately hoping to draw conclusions about socio-economic organisation on a broader scale within early Shang society.
KATAYAMA Kaz (Kyoto), "The Jomonese and the Yayoi People in Japan"
In Japanese history, the Yayoi period (ca 400BC - AD300) seems to have been a very critical age in many aspects: 1) people's way of life was drastically changed from a food-gathering and horticultural economy to rice agriculture, and as a result, people's habitation shifted from coastal and mountanous areas to alluvial plains beside rivers; 2) a bronze and iron technology was imported; 3) a great scale of human population growth happened possibly in the order from some 200,000 to 5,000,000; and 4) people's appearences changed considerably. Several scenarios have thus far proposed to explain such changes in the Yayoi period, for example, the so called micro-evolutionnal change theory by Suzuki (1969), 'partial replacement theory' by Kanaseki (1966), 'dual structure model' by Hanihara (1991) and so on. In the present paper, I will introduce a new model proposed by Nakahashi (1999) to explain the vast population growth in the period, evaluate the above-mentioned models in the light of the newly-found Yayoi human skeletal remains at the Shinpo site, Kobe City, and put forward a new scenario to stress inventional changes in the Yayoi period.
KAWANO Kazutaka (Kyoto Archaeology Center) "Origins of Elite Burial Mounds in East Asia"
This paper presents a hypothesis concerning the origins of elite burial mounds in East Asia, particularly Japan. The author argues that the mounds appeared as a results of the following three phenomena: 1) inflow of foreign goods; 2) hierarchical order of prestige goods; and 3) destructive banquet ceremony. The author further argues that the origins of the elite burial mounds represents a shift from a stage in which prestige goods that were imported from the continental East Asia is wasted in a destructive banquet ceremony, like funeral, to a stage in which prestige goods are produced and distributed in order to regulate and reconfirm ties among local chiefs. In other words, elite burial mounds was an outcome of the necessity for shared ideology of royalty.
KEATES Susan (University of Oxford), "Hominid Evolution in Eastern Asia"
Pleistocene hominids in China derive from all regions except the western region, and most localities are distributed in northern and central China. The majority of hominid fossils are of later Middle Pleistocene age, with only the specimen from Gongwangling (Lantian) in central China of Early Pleistocene antiquity. The hominid status and Late Pliocene date of the Longgupo cave specimen from the south are doubtful. The late Middle Pleistocene chronological clustering of hominids is possibly a result of sampling bias rather than reflecting increased population size in China, although the latter cannot be excluded from consideration. One of the issues that requires resolution are indications that Homo erectus and Homo sapiens were contemporaneous in China. The late Late Pleistocene date of the recently discovered H. sapiens from Leishui near Beijing is probably erroneous. The potentially earliest modern H. sapiens may be represented by Liujiang and Ziyang from southern China. Although both may be earlier than the modern humans from the Upper Cave with Liujiang age equivalent with or older than Lake Mungo 3 from Australia, their association with the radiometric dates derived from these localities remains uncertain. Dating of hominid specimens themselves may lead to a clearer understanding of evolutionary patterns in this part of the world. Research programs which are directed toward locating areas where hominid fossils may be found and subsequently recovered using up to date methods and techniques may lessen the chance of discovery by untrained workers and thus prevent the loss of important contextual and other information, including the destruction of archaeological sites. This is especially important considering the increasing urbanisation of many parts of China where fossils may be discovered.
KEENAN Douglas J. (The Limehouse Cut.), "A Chronology For Early Dynastic China, with Evidence For The Reign Of The Yellow Emperor"
The chronology and history of China prior to the first millennium BC have long been debated. For example, dates for the beginning of what is usually regarded as the second Chinese dynasty range across 1775-1450 BC; there is no consensus on whether the first dynasty existed; and predynastic records are often argued to be mythical. In the late 1980s, K. D. Pang and co-workers identified ancient Chinese texts that appear to record two major volcanic eruptions; this work, though, has not found general acceptance. Here we review the evidence presented by Pang and substantial additional evidence; we conclude that Pang's identification of the texts as recording volcanism is correct, but that his designation of the volcanoes is incorrect; and we identify texts recording an earlier eruption, in predynastic times. These eruptions can be precisely dated (to within a year), which leads to a chronology for ancient China that extends back to late predynastic times. Ancient Chinese texts additionally record that the first Chinese dynasty was founded during a centuries-long flooding, and we report evidence of this flooding. The proposed historicity of the flood texts and the texts identified as recording a predynastic eruption indicates that other predynastic texts might also have historicity. In particular, we present the first real evidence that The Yellow Emperor is not mythical.
LAI Guolong (UCLA), "Archaeology and Ritual Texts: the Sumptuary Use of the Bronze Tripod in Early China"
Like Homeric and Biblical archaeology, Chinese Bronze Age archaeology lives in the shadow of texts. In this paper I discuss the relationship that exists between the archaeological and textual data of Bronze Age China through a case study of the sumptuary rules associated with the inclusion of bronze tripods (ding) in tombs. I argue that the nature of the accordance between archaeological and textual data has too often been misunderstood. Archaeologists untrained in the intricate problems of textual criticism have put their faith in the classics and allowed text-generated preconceptions to define their discoveries; on the other hand, those intimidated by the voluminous books constantly avoid the abundantly available textual materials which can in fact help them explore archaeological data. To illustrate this problem I discuss the sumptuary use of the bronze tripod during the Eastern Zhou period (770-221 BCE), and the existing scholarship on it. I argue that the current dominant theory in fact reflects one of those misunderstandings. Theorists have schematically linked changes in the sumptuary systems to the notion of "the collapse of the ritual and music systems" proposed in the Confucian classics. Inspired by recent theoretical works in ethnoarchaeology and Richard A. Gould's "argument by anomaly," I call for a shift away from a transmitted-text-based methodological approach to a more material-based one, and I propose that instead of playing matching games that aim at directly combining different types of data, we should contrast similar textual and archaeological data and ask why and how they were different. I then place the practice of the sumptuary use of bronze tripods within an anthropologically orientated framework and discuss the sumptuary use and gift-giving of bronzes in a funerary context using recently excavated archaeological material from South China that dates to the Eastern Zhou period.
LEE Heekyung, (London University, SOAS), "Chinese Blue-and-White Wares from the Yuan to the Early Ming Period"
In China, the manufacturing technique of blue-and-white porcelain wares reached its zenith during the Yuan and the early Ming period. The focus of this paper is given to the analyses of some representative ware shapes and surface decorations of blue-and-white wares from this period. This study is different from more traditional approaches, concentrating on usage as one of the most important driving forces behind the manufacture of certain types of wares. In this study, the relationships of certain types of Yuan and Ming imperial blue-and-white wares with state ideology and imperial court religion have been comprehensively explored. Numerous literary sources, art of other types and extant blue-and-white wares were systematically studies in China, Korea and Britain, and reference to the more important of these will be made in the paper.
LEE In Sook (Kyonggi Provincial Museum), "The Trade Network of the Ancient Glass of Korea"
This paper will examine various types of ancient glass artifacts that have been discovered in Korea. Glass objects are found not only historical sites but also in prehistoric sites as well. It will discuss possible trade networks of these ancient glass objects during the prehistoric times and Three-Kingdom period. It will also discuss the relationship between these Korean glass and that of such neighboring regions as China and Central Asia. In this context, the role of Silk Route in the trade network of the ancient glass of Korea will be discussed as well.
LEE Yung-jo (Chungbuk National University), "Role and Significance of the Suyanggae Culture in East Asia"
The Suyanggae site is located at Aegog-li, Danyang County in Chungbuk Province, which is 100km southeast of Seoul, Korea. The Suyanggae site contains 5 cultural layers. The typical upper Palaeolithic stone artifacts were mostly found in layer IV. This layer was dated 16,400 B.P. and 18,000 B.P. by radiocarbon dating. Tanged points and micro-blade cores are those of the peculiar stone artifacts of the Suyanggae lithic assemblage. This analysis would bring light to the close cultural relationship among the Paleolithic sites yielding tanged points and micro-blade cores in Korea and her neighboring region in East Asia.
LIM Young-jin (Chonnam National University), "Archaeolgical Evidence of the Political Transformation of Mahan Complex Societies in Southwest Korea"
According to traditional surveys of early historical records, the Mahan complex societies in southwest Korea appear to have collapsed in the middle of the fourth century A.D. However, a close analysis of recent archaeological evidence allows us to reconsider this conventional view. This paper will examine the exact time and process of this political transformation of Mahan complex societies.
LINDUFF Katheryn M. (University of Pittsburgh), ZHANG Zhongpei (The Palace Museom, P.R.China), Gideon SHELACH (Hebrew University), Robert D. DRENNAN (University of Pittsburgh), "Regional Lifeways and Cultural Remains in the Northern Corridor: Chifeng International Collaborative Archaeological Research Project"
The proposed research project extends an internationally collaborative archaeological program that focuses on monitoring the processes of the emergence of and change in complex society in the region of the Great Wall in southeastern Inner Mongolia near Chifeng through an extensive study of settlement patterns. The study of evolution of regional settlement patterns has proven to be instrumental in the monitoring of population dynamics and socio-political interactions. The region under investigation witnessed change from a more settled, agricultural lifestyle to a pastoral one during the second and first millennia BC. How and why that happened is currently not known. A full coverage reconnaissance survey method has never been applied to this region, nor are the data required for such a study currently available in China. We are examining the processes by which the small-scale societies that inhabited this region made the relatively rapid transition to become complex societies. The central issues addressed are: A. The emergence of agricultural and pastoral cultures and the social, economic and cultural patterns of these cultures. B. The relationship between the pastoral societies and agricultural societies. The research will focus on the manner of exchange between ancient China and the borderlands. C. The role of interaction in relation to the rise of complex societies in the research areas. We systematically began to acquire settlement data in the region by using the full coverage regional survey method in 1998, 1999, and 2000 and will continue to do so through 2003 in order to cover a sufficiently large area to begin reconstruction of these socio-political patterns in the area.
LIU Jianguo (Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing), "Remote Sensing Studies of Yinxu and its Regional Context"
As part of a Sino-American regional survey project in Anyang, remote sensing analysis has been used to help understand the co-evolution of landscape and human society from prehistoric through early historical periods along the Huan River valley, where the late Shang state had its last royal capital. This research has also explored the potential of remote sensing technologies in the analysis and interpretation of human settlement patterns, geomorphic elements, and land use. By using imaging and GIS programs, remote sensing data of various types and scales were integrated, enhanced and analyzed, including Landsat TM imagery, infrared aerial photos, and black and white aerial photos. Ground-truthing of satellite and aerial images was accomplished with archaeological and geological coring, focusing on anomalies west of the palace-temple complex at Xiaotun, the center of Yinxu urban settlement. The examination and interpretation of remote sensing data has greatly benefited archaeological investigations across the region, particularly within Yinxu.
LIU Li ( La Trobe University, Melbourne), "Resource Procurement and Settlement Patterns in Early States, China"
This paper examines the developmental processes and functions of five of the earliest cities and towns dating to the Erlitou and Erligang periods: Erlitou and Yanshi Shangcheng in the core area, and Dongxiafeng, Yuanqu Shangcheng, and Panlongcheng in the peripheries. Regional settlement patterns, demographic variations, locations of copper and salt resources in the peripheries, the internal structure of the cities, as well as artefacts from some of these urban sites are analysed. It is argued that the development and decline of some early "urban centers" were closely related to changing strategies of early state rulers in procurement of vital natural resources. The effort made by elites to control and transport these resources may have generated major affects toward shaping unique patterns of urban expansion in early Chinese civilisation.
LIU Li (La Trobe University), Xingcan CHEN (Chinese Institute of Archaeology) and Yun Kuen LEE (Harvard University), "Social Complexity in the Lower Yi-Luo River Valley"
The Lower Yi-Luo river valley was the theatre of Chinese civilization. The valley is strategically located for defense and the control of a vast hinterland. The magnitudes and structures of Erlitou and Shixianggou sites indicate that they were no less than state capitals or regional centers. However, we have very little understanding of the countryside. The Lower Yi-Luo River Valley Settlement Pattern Survey Project aims at the systematic recovery of settlement data from a regional perspective. It monitors the diachronic change of settlement pattern from the early Neolithic to Han period. Important variables contributing to the rise of social complexity, like the dynamics of population, inter- and intra-regional socio-cultural interaction, the control and extractive strategies of the state, etc., are examined.
LOVEDAY Helen "Aspects of Liao and Jin Wooden Architecture as Reflected in Funerary Decoration"
The vast majority of discussions on the architecture of the Qidan-Liao (947-1125) and Jurchen-Jin (1115-1234) dynasties present the constructions >from both periods under a single label, that of "Liao-Jin". It has only very recently been recognised that, at least in so far as wooden architectural traditions are concerned, this label has in fact served to conceal what are quite notable differences between Liao and Jin constructions. An examination of the use of imitation timber architecture in brick and stone tombs of the Liao and Jin dynasties can help further our understanding of the characteristic features of Jin architecture. An investigation into the elements of wooden architecture reproduced in these tombs, the frequency with which they appear, the geographical location of such tombs, and a comparison of these elements with existing buildings and constructions of the same period, as well as with contemporary Song practices, all suggest not only radically different sources and different lines of development between Liao and Jin funerary architecture, but divergent approaches towards and interests in architecture in general.
MAEKAWA Kaname (University of Toyama, Japan), "Moated Sites in Medieval Japan: Notions of Square and Circle"
The purpose of this paper is to show the model of development of medieval settlements in Japan and to discuss the meaning of square and circular shaped sites. They can be classified into three main groups. The first developed into castles. The second developed in the direction of nucleated villages, and the third moved in the direction of urbanization. From the fourteenth century to the middle of sixteenth century, the so-called late Middle Ages, there were many square castles and circular nucleated settlements with large moats and earthworks.
Numerous attempts have been made by scholars to clarify the historical background to these defensive facilities such as big moats and earthworks. Ultimately, it is argued that they owe their existence to the intense warfare just before the late Middle Ages. In this paper, I review the relationship between warfare and the period of building big moats and earthworks using metrical methods. My conclusion is that the accepted view unsatisfactory. There is no relationship between the period of building big moats and earthworks and the period of intense warfare. Big moats and earthworks do not necessarily mean defensive facilities. I assume there was a symbolic aspect to this. Squares meant domination and Circles community. Moats and earthworks were visual signals of the boundary between the inner world and the outer world. Square castles derived from the orthogonal land allotment system imposed by the government and circle nucleated villages derived from traditional settlement layouts going back to the Yayoi period when many circular settlements were surrounded by moats and earthworks in order to emphasize their identity. In conclusion, the notions of square and circle imply domination and community.
MASKE Andrew (Peabody Essex Museum), "Tokutsu: The Culture of Amateur Ceramic Sherd Collecting Among the Japanese"
The foundations of formal, scientific archaeology in Japan began in the 1870s with the arrival of the Englishman William Gowland and the American, Edward S. Morse, who carried out the first systematic investigations of ancient sites. Even before this, however, Japanese had been recovering buried artifacts from the earth, especially ceramics. One of the more unusual manifestations of this was in the digging of usable discarded ceramics from abandoned kilnsites during the first half of the 19th century. In the 20th century, old kilnsites around Japan have become the target of countless sherd hunters, whose numbers include professional potters, antique dealers, and collectors and would-be collectors of antique Japanese ceramics. This paper will look at some early examples of archaological ceramic collecting in Japan and relate them to the more recent phenomenon of sherd collecting, examining how aspects of Japanese culture have contributed to the rise of such activity.
MILLER Bryan K. (UCLA), "The Han Iron Industry"
This paper will use several models of production to investigate the level of administrative involvement and the scale and organization of production of the iron industry during the Han Dynasty. With special attention focused on production site analysis and the classification of iron inscriptions, it will be shown that the level of administrative control shifted >from the central government, in the period of monopolization, to the local governments, once the monopoly was repealed. The scale and organization of production, however, remained the same throughout the Han Dynasty. Therefore, present models of production in complex societies display a need for flexibility which can accommodate the distinction between administration and management (or organization of production).
MIYAMOTO Kazuo (Kyushu University), "Regional Interaction in the Liaxi District of the Bronze Age"
The Dadianzi Cemetery dating from Ealitou period is divided into several grave clusters based on the distribution of graves and "Li" pottery type which was buried in the grave. Because grave scale accords with social stratification of grave occupant, grave scale can be compared statistically by grave clusters. Based on this comparison, social stratification by social group is understood. The grave of the richest group contains the special grave pottery which imitates the bronze vessel of the Central Plains. On the other hand, the pottery of the Gaotaishan Culture is also seen in the Dadianzi Cemetery. But these graves are not necessarily the rich graves, rather are the lower class graves. This evidence indicates that the influential group of the Dadianzi makes a display of their own social status by showing the connection with the Central Plains. On the other hand, the Gaotaishan Culture pottery indicates the relationship between the grave occupant and the Gaotaishan culture ! peop le, but it does not indicate the social status of the grave occupant. At the Weiyingzi culture which is contemporary to the late Shang and Western Zhou dynasty, in the Liaoxi district there is many storage pits which has bronze vessels.
The comparison of the combination and scale of the bronze vessels between in the storage pits of the Liaoxi district and in the Liulihe Cemetery of the Yan state indicates that the bronze vessels of the Liaoxi district are the prestige goods presented by the Central Plains or the Yan state. This also elucidates that the chiefdom society of the Liaoxi district has the conciliated relationship with the Central Plains or the Yan state. At the late Western Zhou period, the Liaoxi district by itself invented the bronze daggers called as the Liaoning type bronze dagger. At this time the entity of the Liaoxi district accomplished to be the independent tribe state society.
MORRIS Martin (Chiba University, Japan), "Egawa House: the Archaeology of an Early Edo-period Local Governor's Mansion"
This paper offers a case study in the analysis and interpretation of the fabric of a Japanese historic building, based on a report compiled during the course of repair and restoration. The example chosen for discussion is a remarkable and unique building, the surviving main block of the house of the Egawa family, who were hereditary daikans in the province of Izu in Japan during the Edo period. The building, now a national cultural property, appears to have constituted the kitchen, ancillary quarters and entrance suite of the mansion by the 19th century, but it was unquestionably built much earlier.
After a consideration of what is known about the historical background of the building, the investigations which revealed the complex history of the structure, undertaken between 1960 - 62, are discussed. During the course of these, it was discovered that the northern part of the building, a largely earth floored edifice 10 bays by10 bays in area, had been erected, probably in the early 17th century, incorporating a single earth fast post from a previous structure. The south part of the building, now consisting of a single row of rooms 3 bays in cross section, appears to represent part of a late Muromachi period (16 Century) floored structure, once independent, but ultimately joined to the northern part to create a single large building under a thatched gabled and hipped roof. After outlining the evidence uncovered by the restorers, the paper reviews their conclusions and offers some speculations about the original functions and provenance of each of the two structures, and about the implications, architectural and social, of the way in which they were brought together. This discussion is based on documentary evidence and on a comparison of the two buildings with a range of other structures. The paper concludes by suggesting that, although its scale and specific functions make the Egawa House unique, it is in certain respects representative of a more widespread phenomenon in the development of the larger vernacular houses of Edo period Japan. Also noted is the crucial importance of the analysis undertaken when the building was dismantled for repairs in providing the evidence for a detailed understanding of the building's development, and hence a starting point for its interpretation.
MIZOGUCHI Koji (University College London), "The Conception of Time, Genealogical Consciousness and Social Stratification in the Late Middle Yayoi Period of Northern Kyushu"
The jar burial cemeteries of the Late Middle Yayoi period (c. 100BC-0AD) of Northern Kyushu, in comparison to their Early Middle Yayoi counterparts can be characterised by the fact that jar coffins were in many cases densely agglomerated and many of them were superimposed with one another. A detailed reconstruction of the formation process of jar burial agglomerations has revealed that many of them consisted of a number of "jar burial sequences", each of which was formed by situating a burial right next to a pre-existing burial a number of times. By comparing this intriguing mortuary practice with that of the previous Early Middle Yayoi period this paper will argue the following. 1) The emergence of the "technology" of identifying/fixing/signifying the social position of a newly dead person by referring to/creating his/her particular ties with a dead person resulted in the formation of jar burial sequences. 2) The emergence of this technology suggests the emergence of genealogical consciousness and the linear conception of time. By examining correlation between the number of jar burials constituting the sequences and other social persona-related factors the paper will further argue that the above mentioned technology was related to the character of social stratification in the Late Middle Yayoi period of Northern Kyushu.