Third Worldwide SEAA Conference, 16-19 June 2004, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea: Abstracts A–M
Abstracts of Papers presented A–M
ALLARD Francis (Indiana University of Pennsylvania), "The Khanuy Valley International Collaborative Project on Early Nomadic Pastoralism in Mongolia"
This talk reviews the results of the first two field seasons of the Khanuy Valley International Collaborative Project on Early Nomadic Pastoralism in Mongolia. This collaborative effort with the Institute of History of Mongolia investigates the timing and circumstances of the emergence and early development of nomadic pastoralism in central Mongolia's Khanuy valley, a region marked by numerous 'khirigsuurs', stone built ceremonial/funerary sites that date to the region's Bronze Age (second - first millennia BCE). The field project comprises a range of activities, which include the mapping of khirigsuurs and the excavation of their component structures (mounds, circles, paths and burials), surface and subsurface surveys, as well as an ethnographic study. At one large (400 x 400 meters) khirigsuur, a total of 1750 small stone mounds have been identified, each one of these apparently covering the remains of carefully positioned horse heads and vertebrae. The talk discusses how the results of the first two field seasons inform the issues of the nature of power and the function of ritual among these early mobile pastoralists. It also briefly reviews the results of investigations at Golmod2, a large Xiongnu cemetery discovered by our team in 2001.
BARNES Gina L. (University of Durham), "The Japanese Islands from fifteen to half a million years ago: implications for archaeology"
Following Barnes 2003, the geological processes of the formation of the modern Japanese landscape will be traced between 15 and 0.5 Ma. These include uplift and erosion, basin formation, and the beginnings of Quaternary volcanics and fault activity. These processes determined the landscape which the first occupants of the archipelago entered and such processes continually modified the land surface upon which they lived. The geological longue dure is the necessary framework for studying the Quaternary: understanding the long-term transformations of the landscape and taphonomy of the human remains within it allows prediction of the nature of the archaeological record at any point in Quaternary time.
Barnes, G.L. (2003) "Origins of the Japanese Islands: the new 'big picture'". Nichibunken Japan Review 15: 3-50.
BARNES Gina L. (University of Durham) and KANEKO Masumi, presented by KANEKO Masumi, "Roles of Women in Nihon Shoki"
The 8th-century court history, the Nihon Shoki, is rich in historical and anecdotal data covering the preceding several centuries during Japanese state formation. This paper analyzes the mention of women in different contexts within the imperial chapters of the Nihon Shoki for insights into their different functional and social roles. Results show that seven major roles can be identified: women as mates, mothers, mystics, militarists, maids, manufacturers & monarchs. Whether or not these are historically accurate records, they at least indicate that the 8th-century courtiers were willing to accept the dipictions of women in these various roles as part of their own heritage. The Japanese information is put into the wider perspective of gender theory in evaluating the significance of these roles for state formation.
BARAZAD Naran (Institute of Archaeology, Department of Anthropology) "Pathological Cases fram the Bronze and Early Iron Age in Mongolia"
The pathological lesion of human skeletal remains from the Chandman burial ground of Western Mongolia that dates back to the Late Bronze and the Early Iron age. The human skeletal material was excavated between 1972-1974 during a Russian-Mongolian collaborative expedition, conducted by the archaeologists Tseveendorj (1978) and Bolkov (1972). The paleoanthropological, paleodemographic and paleopathological investigations were undertaken by anthropologist Mamonova (1978) and Naran (1997, 2003). Two types of burials were uncovered during archeological excavation of the burial ground namely, timber and stone box graves. Small size stone boxes contained single and double burials. Timber graves which are larger in size than the stone boxes contained from two to a dozen burials.
The paleoanthropological collection of the Department of Anthropology, Institute of Archaeology, of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, was examined macroscopically, and X-rays were taken for the evaluation of pathological data. The collection consists of about 108 skulls and 156 skeletons.
The various aspects of the pathological changes provide usefull information about their living nomadic circumstances and may be indicators of their health conditions. The purpose of this study is to present the pathological lesions and the outline health conditions of early nomadic populations. Many individuals suffered lesions of the bones. These are mostly developmental anomalies, traumatic lesions, specifis and nonspecific infectious diseases, porotic hyperostosis, DJD, osteoarthritis. Among these pathological changes, in the Chandman samples, the nonspecific infectious diseases as the most significant factors. The effects of nutritional deficiency and the traumatic lesions are emphasized in the presentation of their living nomadic circumstances.
BEKHECHI Mohammed A. (The World Bank ), "Archaeological Data for Koguryo Influence on the Culture of Bohai"
Over the past decade, the World Bank has developed a corpus of rules, principles and procedures to mainstream environmental and social protection in projects and activities it finances. The result of the process was the consolidation of a corpus of "safeguard policies" which, among other policies includes a cultural property protection policy known as OPN 11.03 (to be converted as Operational Policy 4.11).
The objectives of OPN 11.03 are threefold: (i) ensure that cultural property is identified in Bank-financed projects, (ii) ensure that project design complies with the Borrower's national laws and regulations governing the protection of cultural property, and (iii) contribute to development of the Borrower's capacity to identify and protect cultural property.
In practice, this policy was trigerred in various projects including large infrastructure projects such as the Chad-Cameroon Pipeline, or the Bolivia-Brazil Pipeline. But it is also trigerred in regular projects and raised in some cases many implmentation and enforcement issues which the paper will discuss.
BENNETT Gwen P. (Washington University), "Salt Production and Changjiang Region Lithics"
Salt production in ancient China is presently a major research topic that has focused attention on many facets of this little understood aspect of the early economy. While specific forms of pottery, site layout, features, and other material culture patterns can often be associated with salt production, the relationship, if there is one, between salt production and lithics remains unclear. This paper will build upon the results of lithic analysis at Zhongba, Zhong County, Chongqing City, a location whose residents appear to have participated in the regional salt industry, to examine Neolithic and Bronze Age lithics in the Changjiang watershed in an attempt to establish an initial, contextualized understanding of their production (methods, forms, raw materials, production loci); implications for regional contact and exchange; and their roles in the regional ideological, sociopolitical, and economic structures, including the salt industry.
CHEN Pochan (Archaeology Program, University of California, Los Angeles) and Rowan K. Flad (UCLA), "Rethinking of leixingxue"
Leixingxue, the study of artifact typology, has been used as the fundamental research approach in Chinese archaeology. It is widely used in ceramic research and has proved its ability in stylistic analysis, especially chronological research. However, its premises limit its usefulness when we try to resolve questions other than chronology. In this paper, we try to reconsider the essence of leixingxue and present another approach, which can be applied for more detailed statistical research. A case study from Zhongba, a salt production site with abundant ceramic sherds in the Three Gorges area, will be applied as an example of this new approach.
CHEN Xingcan (Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing), "Ethnoarchaeology on stone and lime production - a case from Huizui"
Specialization of craft production is one of the most important phenomena of the early states. The Erlitou culture, roughly dated to 1900-1500 B.C., as one of the earliest Bronze Age cultures in China, mainly located in the Yiluo basin in the Middle Yellow River valley, is commonly believed as representing a state level society, while its predecessor the late Longshan culture (2300-1900 B.C.) is thought to have come to the eve of the civilization. But where did the early states like Erlitou get their natural resources like stone tools and lime? How did people make their stone tools and lime? How did people organize their stone and lime production? Is there any specialization in their craft production? Little attentions have been paid on such kind of things so far. However, our new excavation at Huizui site in Yanshi city, Henan province, 20 km to the southeast of Erlitou site, at the foot of the Song Mountains has provided important clues in answering those questions.
Base on an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the stone tools and lime production at Huizui, it can be sure that Huizui may have been one of the most important providers of the stone tools and lime of the early states. Stone blanks, flakes, whetstones and broken stone tools are everywhere at the site, mainly made of oolitic limestone and sand stones (for whetstones mainly), are far from satisfied its own need. The unsuitable stone materials for making stone tools and those of the broken stone blanks and tools were put into the lime kilns in producing lime. The production of stone tools and lime were thus interdependent though they had different production of their owns. The Huizui site, producing stone tools and lime in a large scale as early as in the late Longshan culture, continued to be one of the massive production centers of those products in the Erlitou period. Is there any difference between the Longshan and Erlitou periods regarding the production from the perspective of craft specialization? Did the Erlitou polity have any form of state controls on the stone mining and production of the stone tools and lime?
An ethnoarchaeological study of the stone tools and lime production at Xikouzi village, about 5 km to the east of Huizui site may help us to answer those questions. Our study shows that Xikouzi is one of the villages specializing in stone production in the area. The distribution pattern of the stone materials, products and broken stones, flakes and chips are everywhere, is similar to what we have seen at Huizui site archaeologically. The similarities may point to the same production purpose: both of them producing their products for others rather than themselves. Though Xihozi village have a kind of specialized production pattern, however, almost all workshops are family-based and nobody is a full-time stone craftsman---he is living in the village and has to do his agricultural job if needed. This may have been the case to the Huizui people though the assumption is far from been proved. Interestingly, the stone production at Xikouzi, like we have seen in Huizui site, is interdependent with the lime and carpolite production. While the larger stone flakes and broken products are moved to the lime or carpolite production places, the smaller ones are sent to only carpolite producing factories. Stone miners, lime and carpolite producers and the people who are responsible for stone transportations are different specialized people, though they are basically farmers and are never free from agricultural labors. The family-based stone and lime production and transportation models may help us in understanding the craft production of the early states. The early states like Erlitou polity may have had a rather loose control of the stone mining and stone and lime production in their periphery areas. Little differences of stone tools and lime production between the Longshan and Erlitou culture may have witnessed the similar production pattern of the two different periods.
CHILDS-JOHNSON Elizabeth (American Council of Learned Societies, NEH ), "Early Shang China: Metropolitan Ding Vessels and the Question of Regional Centers during the Early Shang Period"
In this paper it is proposed that the ritual bronze ding tetrapod and tripod function as signifiers of royal power. The history of the tetrapod ding is reviewed from its origins in Early Shang to Late Shang times as is the evidence for the ding rite in Late Shang bone inscriptions. On the basis of both paleographic and archaeological evidence it is maintained that the ding tetrapod during the Early Shang period was a tool for measuring metropolitan power and influence.
CHIOU-PENG TzeHuey (University of Illnois Urbana Champaign), "Stone Ornaments from the Bronze Age sites of Yunnan: new lights on cultural interactions betweeen Yunnan and its surrounding regions"
The study appraises the popular theory which claims that lapidary production represented an indigenous craft specialization in ancient Yunnan. This hypothesis is inferred on the basis of an assemblage of stone body ornaments taken from burials of the Dian culture (c.350 B.C. - A.D. 100), in which bronzes were known as primary mortuary offerrings. Due to the lack of close parallels from available archaeological finds in China, these distinctive stone artifacts frequently are labeled as "local" products, despite the fact that concrete evidence pointing to the existence of stone jewelry workshops in the area has yet to be produced, and tha relevant mineral resources also need to be located to support this viewpoint. In light of current studies of typological features, technical aspects, and mineralogical data pertaining to idiosyncratic stone ornaments from sites in Yunnan and its surrounding regions, issues concerning the Dian finds can now be explained in the context of east Asian cultures. Current data reveal that the Yunnan stone artifacts were used exclusively by elitist groups as markers of social identity. These items consisted of both imported products in finished forms and items made of materials of unknown origins. A number of them clearly had emulated prototypes used at Neolithic burials in the Indochinese peninsula. These prototypes consisted of a variety of exotc marine shell jewelry, some of which subsequently became reproduced in stone, jade, and bronze materials. All of these artifacts proliferated for millennia at archaeological sites in China and southeast Asia. While a few of the stone replicas used in the Shang sphere and sites near the Yangzi River possibly were modified to suit local ritualistic functions, others discovered at the Yunnan sites remained as faithful copies of southeast Asian jewelry, although the mechanism for their introduction into Yunnan has yet to be elucidated. A close examination of the Dian stone ornaments also adds new dimensions for studying Chinese lapidary traditions, in which falimiar stone artifact types usually are assumed to have evolved within China proper, while the transmission of the artistic and technological ideas embedded in these objects are thought to have diffused in east-to-west and north-to-south directions, but rarely vice versa. These existing views certainly need to be re-examined.
CHOI Bok-kyu (Kangwon National University), "The Mesolithic Culture in Korea"
The Mesolithic is considered to be an intermediate period between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic, spanning immediate Post-Glacial era. Some archaeologists in Korea distinguish this time span of new material culture as a separate age, while others consider it to be the last stage in the development of the Paleolithic. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) there was a significant migration of people living on the Korean Peninsula northwards to areas such as East Siberia and North China, including Manchuria.
These new destinations were gradually freed from the huge masses of ice due to global warming. The global climate change after the LGM resulted in radical changes of fauna and flora in the Korean Peninsula, giving rise to tundra-like vegetation that was later replaced by temperate forests. As the vegetation belts moved northwards, the indigenous people developed new ways of life. These changes pertaining to technology, mobility, and subsistence were required to survive in the new Post-Glacial environment.
The first material cultures of the Mesolithic Age in Korea and adjacent areas appear to have been a result of the decline of Upper Paleolithic cultures. Like those of other continents, the cultural decline of the Upper Paleolithic was due to difficulties in adaptating to the rapidly changing environment. The Mesolithic hunters, however, developed bow and arrow technology which marked significant improvements in portability and accuracy of hunting tools. The cultural and technical achievements during the Mesolithic also include the invention of microlithic technology and the incipient domestication of dogs and plants, which later formed the foundation of hunting and cultivating subsistence economy in the early Neolithic. In addition, the recovery of various kinds of fishing gear such as bone fish spear head, barbless bone fish hooks, net weights and floats, demonstrates that the Mesolithic people acquired protein by foraging a broad range of resources, not being limited to land animals.
Remains of the Mesolithic culture have been found all over East Asia including Siberia, Maritime region, Mongolia, Northeast China, Manchuria, Kamchatka Peninsula, Alaska and the Japanese Archipelago. Based on this regional distribution of the Mesolithic culture, it has been consistently suggested that Mesolithic sites might be found on the Korean Peninsula. This writer would broadly divide the Mesolithic culture in Korea and adjacent areas into five subregions: Korean Peninsula, Northeast China, East Siberia, Japan, and Alaska. Concrete evidence of the Mesolithic culture in Korea was found from Hahwagye-ri Sadunji site in Hongcheon-gun. There were several possible Mesolithic sites in Korea that yielded many microliths including the upper layer of Sokchang-ri site in central Korea excavated in 1965-1974 and the lower layer of Imbul-ri site in southern Korea excavated in 1988. These sites, however, lacked reliable geological evidence and accurate dating.
The Hahwagye-ri IV site excavated from 2000 to 2001, in contrast, has a reliable radiocarbon date of 13,39060 B.P. that came from charcoal samples from the second layer. Subsequent discoveries of the Gigog site (10,20060 B.P.) on the east coast that belongs to the Late Mesolithic, and the Hahwagye-ri I, II, and III sites which are the earliest Mesolithic sites in Korea, also strongly support that the Mesolithic culture existed in the Korean Peninsula during the early Post-Glacial period. Accumulated archaeological evidence allows us to suggest that the Mesolithic culture began and flourished in the coastal areas of Korea during the warm and moist period of the early Post-Glacial.
CHOI Jongtaek (Korea University), "Review of Goguryeo Archaeology"
Goguryeo (Koguryo) archaeology started with the discovery of King Gwanggaelo's tombstone in 1880. and was furthered by the field survey of tombs and fortresses in modern day Jian and Pyeongyang in the early 20th century. The research was mostly conducted by Japanese scholars before the Korea's independence in 1945, and Anak tomb no.3 was the first Goguryeo site excavated by North Korean archaeologists in 1949. Other mural painting tombs, fortresses and the capital wall were widely excavated until the late 1970s. Few systematic archaeological studies have becn conducted except for chronological works by North Korean scholars in the !970s. The 1980s, witnessed a rapid increase in arehaeologieal studies of chronology of Goguryeo tombs and fortress structures, although analysis of individual artifacts types remained an unexplored topic of study. Goguryeo pottery assemblages became synthesized and analyzed in the 1990s. while the formation process of Goguryeo kingdom was discusscd. Despite significant achievements, Goguryeo archaeology still exposes many problems. These mainly come from the modern day politcal situation, and scholars from North and South Korea and China do not often have acccss to the archaeologieal record from other countries. The situation is getting better, but fundamental difficulties still hamper scholars from working beyond the political boundary. In this vein. recent excavations at Achasan and other Han River areas provide valuable opportunities to the study of Goguryeo Archaeology.
CHOI Mou-chang (Kon-kuk University), "The stone artifacts from Wondang-ri site of the 6th excavation in 2003"
I shall try to describe how they were discovered and excavated at Wondang-ri site under what conditions, and the results and inter pretation that follows:
stratigraphy of the pit 1 (5th excavation, in 2002) (The east section)
1. modern soil 35~40 cm
2. dark brownish clay 40 cm (middle paleolithic)
3. dark brown sandy clay (including manganes trace lines thickness 90~100 cm lower paleolithic)
4. brownish clay 54~42 cm
5. brown reddish sand, 26~16 cm
From top to base of lower level (level 3, dark brownish clay) to be quite strongly weatherd with manganess trace lines to a variable thick which may on occasion reach a meter (90~100cm). But lower level (level 3) all the characteristics indicate a typical lower paleolithics with segment of the circles and choppers and chopping-tools (from the result of 3th and 4th excavation).
The second layer that can be to typical middle paleolithic is situated at the top of Wondang-ri deposits. This layer has yielded 53 recognizable tools. There are triangle hand-axes, cleavers, levalloisan flake-blade cores, prepared cores, denticulates, notchs, points, side-scrapers and end-side-scrapers. The levalloisan core and prepared core well represented. It is a levalloisan industry well facetted. Most flake-tools and flakes are short.
Most of the middle paleolithic industries being struck out with a hard hammer. The most numerous being the straight and convex side-scraper. Tortoise is rare.
I want to this work goes on, slowly. It took me 6 years to excavate (in 1996~2003) at Wondang-ri site. If I had to do it again, with what I now know done, it would probably take me 10 years.
DRENNAN Robert D. and Christian E. PETERSON (University of Pittsburgh), "Comparative Settlement Pattern Research on Early Chiefdom Communities in Eastern Inner Mongolia, the Northern Andes, and Mesoamerica"
No early chiefdom society was exactly like that of another region, but all represented the initial de-velopment of permanent hierarchical social relations in their respective regions. In these societies, those who would be chiefs were successful enough at forging unequal social relationships with other members of their own communities that the fundamental organizing principles of those communities were trans-formed. The communities involved in this transformation existed at varying social and spatial scales: we commonly think of small local communities composed of those in face-to-face interaction on a daily basis nested within higher order communities, which were sometimes nested within yet larger communities. From this perspective, the emergence of chiefdoms is marked by the emergence of larger, more tightly integrated communities than had existed previously. Settlement pattern research on a regional scale pro-vides an opportunity to delineate and compare these communities, based on the assumption that they are reflected in the way human settlement is distributed across the landscape at a given time. Compari-son of the settlement pattern records for the Chifeng, the Alto Magdalena (Colombia) and the Valley of Oaxaca (Mexico) shows that chiefdom communities emerged under conditions of especially low popula-tion density in Chifeng and Oaxaca, and their development was especially rapid in Oaxaca and the Alto Magdalena. It appears that interaction patterns were structured much more strongly around small local communities in Chifeng and Oaxaca than in the Alto Magdalena. It was also in Chifeng and Oaxaca that chiefdoms were succeeded eventually by large integrated state-level organization, whereas this did not occur in the Alto Magdalena sequence.
EDWARDS Walter (Tenri University, Japan), "How Many Mirrors? A Simulation of the Discovery of Triangular-Rimmed Mirrors in Japan"
A distinctive style of mirror, known in Japanese as sankakubuchi shinjukyo and widely regarded as being of Chinese manufacture (excluding items thought to be Japanese imitations), is found primarily in mounded tombs of the third and fourth centuries AD. Taking its name from the thick triangular cross-section of the rim, this style differs from other Chinese mirrors in exhibiting a highly uniform size averaging 22.3 cm in diameter, and comprising sets of up to nine members cast from the same mold, or from molds made from a single model. Both features are regarded as suggesting a process of mass production. Triangular-rimmed mirrors have received widespread attention in Japanese scholarship, because of the possibility that they represent the style recorded in the Wei zhi as conferred to Queen Himiko by the Wei Court, and also because of the suggestion, made by Kyoto University archaeologist Kobayashi Yukio, that distribution of these mirrors played a critical role in the formation of the first large-scale polity of ancient Japan, the third century alliance centered on Yamato.
While mysteries surrounding this style of mirror cannot be dispelled as long as their place of manufacture remains uncertain, it is worth considering how many mirrors may have originally been brought into Japan and distributed throughout the archipelago. An approach to this question is made possible by these mirrors??character of belonging predominately to duplicate sets. As the ratio of duplicate-set membership to the total number known can be calculated for every point to date in the historic process of their discovery, any model replicating that discovery can be judged for adequacy by the criterion of how accurately it recreates this ratio. By varying experimentally the various parameters of such models, including the overall size of the original population of mirrors, an upper limit may be estimated for the total number of triangular-rimmed mirrors that may conceivably have been imported into Japan.
EDWARDS Walter and OKITA Masaaki (Tenri University, Japan), "Reconstruction of Japanese Kofun (Mounded Tombs) Using Radar and Resistivity Prospection"
Many examples are known of kofun (mounded tombs) being destroyed during the economic development attending Japan's modernization, such as mounds Nos. 4, 5, and 6 of the Tamateyama group, sixty-meter plus keyhole-shaped tombs that were leveled for a housing tract. There are surely numerous other cases, however, in which the mound has vanished without leaving any record whatsoever of its existence or disappearance. In addition, among those tombs surviving to the present, there are many examples in which the mound has been partially cut back in the opening of new agricultural fields or buried during volcanic eruptions, thereby exhibiting changes since ancient times across part or all of the shape. But even when the original outline no longer remains in the surface form of a tomb, by using archaeological prospection methods that examine differences in the physical properties of the underlying soils, it is often possible to reconstruct the tomb's former shape by detecting a buried moat or the base line of the mound.
The utility of prospection in the reconstruction of kofun was first demonstrated by the Nara National Cultural Properties Institute in the early 1960s, with an electric resistivity survey showing that the round mound designated as the mausoleum of ninth century Emperor Heizei was in fact a keyhole shaped mound whose trapezoidal section was leveled during the early eighth-century construction of the Nara capital. Since 1997, our research group at Tenri University has been assembling the equipment and software necessary for radar and electric resistivity prospection, and accumulating experience in the application of these methods to the study and reconstruction of Japanese kofun. In this presentation, we wish to exhibit the principle results of some of our most recent work, including a study made in the 2003-04 Academic Year at the No Tomb Group in the town of Ono, Gifu prefecture, thereby indicating the possibilities for archaeological prospection in the study of the Kofun period of Japan.
von FALKENHAUSEN Lothar (University of California, Los Angeles): "The Burial Population of the Qucun Cemetery"
The excavation of several hundreds of tombs from the Western and Eastern Zhou periods near the assumed first capital of the Jin polity at Quwo in southern Shanxi has provided materials relevant to the study of the polity's social structure. This paper, based on statistics culled from the published reports and historical considerations, compares the new evidence with what was previously known from other sites, pinpointing broad similarities but also some unique features that may be significant for understanding the local situation.
FANG Hui (Oriental Archaeology Research Center, Shandong University), "Daxinzhuang Site and Shang Culture in Eastern China"
Daxinzhuang Site, located in Jinan City, Shandong Province, is a well-known site. In the Spring of 2003, a full-coverage survey and an large scale excavation were carried out by Shandong University. Many new discoveries were made including inscribed oracle bones, high level burials with presitage goods like bronze, jade, sea shell etc.. It's clearly that the Daxinzhuang is a regional center in Eastern China in Shang period, which linked Shandong and Central Plain. The paper talks about the settlement pattern changes and why Daxinzhuang became a regional center in Middle Shang period.
FINN Christine and Robin CONINGHAM (University of Bradford, Dept. Archaeological Sciences), "Ancient Belief, Contemporary Ritual: Modern Use of Buddhist Artifacts"
Architectural, archaeological and epigraphic sources attest to the dynamic nature of the use of space in monument Buddhist complexes in South and Southeast Asia (Coningham 2001). Whilst these examples have examined the alteration of individual sites and their buildings, such as at Sanchi (Marshall et al. 1940), few scholars have considered the effect of the movement and reinstallation of cult items or objects. Indeed, such is the confusion surrounding such developments that some scholars cite its evidence in the archaeological record as looting (Grave 1995). This paper will consider the way contemporary Buddhist practice incorporates ancient objects and ritual and will consider the evidence for such behaviour in the past. It is inspired by Finn's experience and attendance at ceremonies in Thailand and the UK in 2001, in which a significant Buddha rupa was made, with great ceremony, at a traditional sculpture studio outside Bangkok, and installed, with similar ritual observance, in the heart of a prehistoric landscape in the United Kingdom. Coningham, an archaeologist specialising in south Asia, will act as a discussant as both consider the ways in which the context of the statue is changed - and ways in which it remains the same - in its different cultural setting, and the role in which location plays in this context. Finn has previously discussed the use of ancient practices and artifacts in the setting of native American prehistoric sites, and this paper will ask also what can be learned from the observance of contemporary ritual derived from ancient practice. Coningham has worked at the Buddhist sites of Lumbini, Kapilavastu and Anuradhapura and has an interest in the archaeological visibility of Buddhist practice.
FLAD Rowan (Harvard University ), "Zooarchaeology in the Prehistoric Three Gorges: A View from Zhongba"
Zhongba is one of the most important sites among the many recently excavated in the Three Gorges dam reservoir area. The cultural deposits at this site are more than ten meters in some areas and provide a comprehensive perspective on historical and environmental changes in this region from the late Neolithic through the end of the Bronze Age. Excavations at this site between 1997 and 2002 revealed extensive cultural remains related to these changes and associated with intensive, specialized salt production. They include vast amounts of pottery, stone tools, other small finds, and animal bones. These last data were recovered using wire mesh screens and rigorous sampling techniques to ensure a representative sample. They show that fish became increasingly important over time, and that the diversity of mammal fauna also increased. I suggest that these patterns relate primarily to changes in the organization of production at the site, while also revealing some trends in the surrounding environmental conditions that prevailed at different points between the end of the third millennium BC and the end of the first Millennium BC.
FUJIO Shinichiro and SAKAMOTO Minoru (National Museum of Japanese History) "AMS Radiocarbon Dating for the Beginning of the Yayoi Period in Japan"
Samples of carbonised material adhering to pottery sherds of the Initial Yayoi Period were dated by the radiocarbon method using the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The sherds were recovered from several archaeological sites in northern Kyushu that represent the very early stage of wet-rice agriculture in the Japanese archipelago. The results were then converted to calendar years according to the calibration curve of INTCAL98. The dates cluster around 800-900 B.C. , suggesting that the Yayoi Period began in the 10th century B.C., rather than in the 5th century, some 500 years earlier than had been generally accepted.
Comparison of these dates with age estimates provided by dendrochronology, artifacts with date inscriptions, and correlations of local ceramic sequences leads us to conclude that the newly obtained AMS dates for the Initial Yayoi are consistent with age estimates derived from other methods. We therefore believe that the early dates are supportable on archaeological grounds as well.
The findings suggest the following:
1. It is possible that the start of rice-cultivation in irrigated field in the Japanese archipelago corresponded in time to the Shang-Western Zhou period of the continental chronology, rather than the Eastern Zhou (or the Spring-and-Autumn and the Warring States) period;
2. It had been thought that the practice of rice cultivation in irrigation fields in the Japanese archipelago was associated with the use of iron tools from the beginning, but is now seems likely that it began with the stone age technology without iron tools;
3. According to the previous chronological framework, the rate of sociao-political transformation in the Japanese archipelago was unusually rapid, with the incipient states, termed kuni, appearing within 400 years of the establishment of the agricultural way of life. It now appears that the process took place at a much slower pace, taking almost twice as long as had been suggested.
FUNAHASHI Kyoko (Kyūshū University) "Ritual tooth ablation and social organization from the Final Jomon to the Yayoi in Northern Kyushu, Japan"
This study investigates the meaning of tooth ablation and its socio-cultural background in the period between the Final Jomon and the Yayoi in Northern Kyushu by examining a) the percentage of those who received tooth ablation among individual age/sex groups, b) attrition, and c) the pre-auricular groove of the ilium.The outcomes of the examination are as follows.
1) In the Final Jomon period, the extraction of upper and lower canines and lower incisors were carried out when the recipients were between 13 and 20 years of age, and the parcentages was 80-90%.
2) In the early Yoyoi pireod, the extraction of upper and lower canines and lower incisors were carried out, and the parcentages was 80-90%.
3) From the end of the Early Yayoi period, the extraction of upper and lower incisors, canines and premolars were carried out when the recipients were at adult and mature ages, and the percentage was low. Based upon the outcomes the author will interpret the meaning of tooth ablation in relation to marking of rites of passage.
FURIYA Tetsuo (Department of Archaeology Kyūshū University), "A Study of the Distribution of Korean Ceramic -Based on the Analysis of Celadon Ware During the Medieval Period of Japan-"
This paper is an examination of the distribution of Korean Trade Ceramic, especially Celadon Ware during the Medieval Period of Japan. In the same time, I try to explain how the people who lived in the Medieval Japan used or consumed the Korean Trade Ceramics. The artifact from a certain archaeological site reflected to a certain archaeological context on which we can prove how the findings were used. To clarify these problems, I re-classified the materials of Celadon Ware from archaeological sites of Japan, and made a new system of chronology between the Medieval Period of Japan and Koryo Period of Korea. A result of this chronology is; Period I about the late-11to early-12 centuries; Period II about early-12 to mid-13 centuries; Period III about late-13 to mid-14 centuries; Period IV about late-14 to late 15 centuries. Through the formation of the distribution during Period I-IV it is clear that about 60 percentages of Korean ceramics are found in a variety of political center, such as Castles (JOU-KAN), Offices (KOKUFU), Temples (JI-IN). In Period I there is a tendency that most of Korean Ceramics distributes around the northern KYUSHU. Period II the distribution of Kyushu sudden decreases, on the contrary, two cities of HEIAN (HEIAN-KYO) and KAMAKURA comes to be prominent. Period III the KAMAKURA is a center of the distribution with some sites depended on the Polity of KAMAKURA (BAKUFU). Period IV there is a tendency that distribution revised in the northern KYUSHU, and it spread around a whole area of Japan. In conclusion, I will point out the latter understandings about the distribution routs- of Korean Ceramics in the Medieval of Japan. (1) The rout along the SETOUTI Sea and the Pacific Ocean (2) The rout along the NIHON Sea (3) The rout through inland of Japan.
GELMAN Evgenia (Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the People of the Far East, Vladivostok), "Evolution of the Bohai tail and periodization of Buddhist temples"
The problem of a periodization for Bohai sites is very complicated as there are not firm data. For Bohai sites from Russian Primorye this problem partly can be resolved through examination of evolution of tail from Buddhist temples. Five Buddhist temples were excavated on the territory of Russian Primorye. Four of them are solitary buildings and are located outside any settlement in the basin of the Suifun river (Kopytinskyi, Abrikosovskyi, Borisovskyi and Korsakovskyi temples). Only Kraskinskyi temple is situated inside the walled town and consists of few edifices within the bounds of the temple wall.
Evolution of the Bohai tail is traced in form, size, decoration, technique and technology of making of all tail. But especially clearly alterations become apparent in form of the Bohai upper tail. All upper tail from Buddhist temples of Russian Primorye is divided by shape of narrow edge in three types:
- I type has 3-4 grooves on the narrow edge of upper tail;
- II type has only plain surface on this edge;
- III type has step on the narrow edge, on which there is a groove.
All three types were found only in the Kraskinskyi temple. They were excavated in different edifices and deposits existing in time one after another.
Not numerous samples of the tail of I type was found too in during excavation of Kopytinskyi and Abrikosovskyi temples where tail of II type is predominated. Study of the d챕cor on the upper tail of both temples showed that Kopytinskyi temple existed early then Abrikosovskyi temple. Part of the upper tail from first site was used for roof of Abrikosovskyi temple.
Only tail of III type was found at Borisovsky and Korsakovskyi temples. Thus it is possible to do correlative scheme of being of all Buddhist temples from Russian Primorye:
1 stage Kopytinskyi temple and down level of Kraskinskyi temple;
2 stage Abrikosovskyi temple and middle level of Kraskinskyi temple;
3 stage Borisovskyi temple, Korsakovskyi temple and upper level of Kraskinskyi temple.
HAAPANEN Minna (Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA ), "The Social Role of Eating in the Context of Shang Bronze Manufacturing"
In the Late Shang period Anyang (ca. 1200-1046 BCE), food and many aspects relating to it (feasting, food sacrifices, food related ritual objects etc.) played crucial parts in the maintenance of power. All these contexts that scholars have thus far studied are related to the ritual use of food and not to its use in daily life. However, since food was of central concern to the Shang elite, I assume that it played a crucial role for other social classes as well. Especially I assume this to be the case for specialized bronze manufacturers who were intimately connected to the food and drink centred ceremonial life of the Shang elite. After all, they manufactured the needed bronze ritual vessels used in sacrifices and most likely also in related feasts. This paper thus examines this possible usage of food and foodways in the building, maintenance, and negotiation of power and identity among specialized bronze manufacturers of the Shang dynasty with the focus on Miaopu Locus North, Anyang, Henan Province, China. This based on my doctoral work on whole and reconstructed ceramics from this site. My analysis of the vessels focuses on their shape and size as well as on use-wear present on them. Based on this analysis, I propose that as food and drink were important in the claim for power among the ruling elite, they were also intentionally used in this discourse of power among the lower echelons of the Shang society.
HUDSON Mark (Hokkaido University ), "World System Incorporation and the Okhotsk Culture of Hokkaido"
This paper considers the interplay between human adaptation and political economy in the context of the Okhotsk culture of Hokkaido (c. 550-1200 C.E.). Although it flourished at a time of great change and expansion in the East Asian world system, it is argued that the Okhotsk managed to resist incorporation by that system until its final stages. The resistance to world system domination shown by the Okhotsk people, however, does not mean that they were isolated from macroregional developments. The biocultural reproduction of Okhotsk society cannot be understood only in terms of ecological adaptation but must be placed in the context of the Northeast Asian political economy.
HUNG Ling-yu (Washington University in St. Louis), "Decoration analysis and social units? A case study of fish-motifs on Yangshao pottery "
The fish-motif was one of the most typical designs on Yangshao painted pottery. It was used by Yangshao potters for at least one thousand years and was widely distributed in the Yellow River Valley and its surroundings. The symbolic meaning of fish to Yangshao people has been widely discussed by Chinese archaeologists since the 1960s. Most archaeologists agree that the fish-motif is an indicator of certain ethnic groups or archaeological cultures. However, various classification systems of fish and non-fish designs, which are related to contrary opinions about the division of archaeological cultures or social units, have been proposed. This paper will consider the motif structure, motif combinations, and the arrangement of designs on vessel shapes, to attempt to clarify the temporal and regional development of fish-motifs on Yangshao pottery. Furthermore, the nature of fish-motifs in Yangshao Culture will be discussed in terms of the identification of regularity and variation between areas in each phase.
IKAWA-SMITH Fumiko (McGill University), "Yayoi in the East Asian Interaction Sphere: Introduction and Background "
Yayoi Culture is thought to represent the first archaeological culture that is 'recognizably Japanese'. The society appears to have been based on rice cultivation in irrigated fields, that were worked with the kinds of agricultural implements not unlike those used in recent past. The settlements included storage houses on stiles with features similar to those found in Shinto shrines, and the apparent ceremonial significance placed on mirrors, swords and beads reminds us of the 'Three Imperial Regalia' symbolizing political legitimacy. When and how this culture took its shape, not to mention where the various component elements came from, is of great import to construction of Japanese history, and Japanese identity. These questions are also important in situating Japan among the peoples and the nations of eastern Asia.
The announcement at the 69th Meeting of the Japanese Archaeological Association by the team of researchers from the National Museum of Japanese History in May 2003 that the calibrated AMS radiocarbon dates on Initial Yayoi pottery from several sites in northern Kyushu indicated the beginning of the Yayoi Period to be some 500 years earlier than had been generally accepted created a sensation. The hall where the announcement was made was packed with archaeologists and journalists, and the ensuing debate continues to be widely reported through mass media.
Critical comments on the dates are presented on several grounds, for example:
1. Some archaeologists dismiss outright the validity and reliability of radiocarbon dates. Somewhat surprising for a country renowned for high-technology products, there is a deep-rooted reluctance among Japanese archaeologists to use 'non-archaeological' dating methods. The sentiment that such methods threaten the integrity of the archaeological discipline goes back to the controversy in the 1960s over the surprisingly early radiocarbon dates on Jomon pottery.
2. Other archaeologists raise objection on the ground that the AMS dates are at variance with the chronology based on local archaeological evidence, such as the chronology constructed from the typological sequence of burial jars combined with the estimated ages of skeletal remains contained within.
3. The third group of critics refers to the discrepancy between the AMS dates and the chronology based on objects of continental origins, such as bronze mirrors with inscribed dates, and the evidence for wide-spread use of cast iron implements.
It may be that 'Yayoi Culture did not come from anywhere. It was formed in the archipelago through combination of elements newly derived from the continent with those which had existed in Jomon times' (Sahara Makoto, A New History of Japan, Vol. I, p. 303, 1987). Nevertheless, it was the addition of those external elements that was essential in creating something 'recognizably Japanese', and when these elements actually arrived in the archipelago is now at issue. The international forum provided by the Society for East Asian Archaeology seems to me to be the ideal place to sort out the discrepancy between the AMS dates and the ages attributed to the artifacts of continental derivation. I look forward to a lively exchange of views, among the panellists and from the participants at large.
IM Hyo-jai (Seoul National University), "Cultural Interaction between Korea and Northeast China During the Neolithic Age"
New excavations in both Korea and northeastern China have shed new light on the relationship between Neolithic cultures in these regions. This paper considers the pottery from these sites in seeking to understand how Korean and Chinese sites are related. Characteristics of the pottery that are particularly indicative of relationships are the shape decoration of pottery vessels, the temper, paste, and manufacture are also related. While sites in northeast China have only flat-bottom pottery vessels, in Korea the earlier bases are flat, but later ones(in the Chulmun period) are conical. Nevertheless, the conical-based pottery bears external incising and impressing that is similar in pattern to pottery produced in northeast China It is concluded that eastern Liaoning, especially the Liaodong peninsula, had close cultural contacts with Korea.
ISHIKAWA Takeshi (Kyushu University ), "Social transformation from the Late to the Final Jomon period in the Kyushu region, Japan"
This paper investigates social transformation from the Late to the Final Jomon period in the Kyushu region of Japan by examining the pottery, intra- and inter-settlement structural patterns, and ritualistic material items.
The study revealed that various material items, both ritual and mundane, gradually transformed their character over the period, and the trend appears to have been related to the intensification of the categorization and differentiation of the members of individual communities.
The paper argues that the mechanism which gave rise to the above mentioned transformation can only be properly understood by carefully referring to general models of social organization and its transformation such as Neo-evolutionary models and their critically-modified versions.
ITAKURA Yudai (Kyushu University), "Emergence and Transformation of Sedentism in the Jomon Period"
This paper investigates the causes and the consequences of the emergence and transformation of sedentism in the Jomon period. The examination of the polished stone axe-adze, an important subsistence tool, and the durability of pit dwellings has revealed the following stages in the establishment and transformation of sedentism.
Sedentary tendency rose during the earlier phase of the Earliest Jomon period [10000-9000yrsBP] in the southern Kyushu region. This incipient sedentism declined toward the end of the period [around 7000yrsBP]. The Middle Jomon and the earlier phase of the Late Jomon periods [5000-4000yrsBP] saw the rise of sedentary tendency, again, this time throughout the Kyushu region. The process reached its peak in the middle phase of the Late Jomon period [around 3500yrsBP].
The rise of sedentism, in the Earliest Jomon period in the southern Kyushu region and in the Middle Jomon period throughout the Kyushu region, resulted from the widening of the range of edible foodstuffs thanks to the spread of the mixed forest made up of laurel and deciduous trees and the invention of depoisoning techniques. The sedentism of the Earliest Jomon period declined probably due to the development and spread of laurel forest and subsequent decline of the range of edible foodstuffs. The study also revealed that the rise of sedentary tendency in the Middle / Late Jomon periods in the Kyushu region appears to have given rise to population increase and the development of various social lies and networks.
IWASAKI Kumi (Okayama University ), "Anthropomorphic Clay Figurines in the Prehistoric Japanese Archipelago: Ideological and Gendered Perspective"
The Jomon period, which extends over 10,000 years has been considered as a magic or ritual oriented culture because of the many artifacts considered to have been used for ritual. Especially redundant are clay figurines about 15000 of which have been found are verified from the Intial Jomon period to the early Yayoi period, and, the further increase in the further is quite likely then. Their proportion is also very rich in variety suggesting the rich imaginative power of people of those days. The jomon clay figurines are uniquely large in quantity compared with other parts of the world.
It has been considered that many of figurines represent the female image. Because of their unrealistic style, they have been interpreted as the goddesses and mother goddesses rather than real women. These interpretations assume only one role of clay figurines which is not likely considering the very long time of 10,000 years. We should pay more attention to particular contexts and deviations to attain more adequate interpretation of the figurines.Although the body features of clay figurines have been used to reconstruct the customs of Jomon period,they are examined from the ideological perspective in this paper.
This paper focuses on the second half of the late jomon period,when the amount of clay figurines increase remarkably in central and northern part of Kyushu. There are two explanations for this phenomenon:
1) The figurines spread to Kyushu as a part of cultural complexes from eastern Japan, and
2) ritual with clay figurines were performed extensively against the new culture transmitted from the continent. This paper presents a new interpretation of the increase of figurines from a gendered perspective, considering the women's roles in horticultural society.
IZUHO Masami (Sapporo Buried Cultural Property Center ), "Archaeological Evidence for Qidan Presence in the Primorski Region"
This paper provides a chronology of the Late Pleistocene sites in Hokkaido, Japan. In order to build a reliable chronology, we examine site formation processes of selected sites: First, we assess validity of 14C dates and site stratigraphy by an application of geoarchaeological methods. Second, we discuss technological characteristics of lithic assemblages from the study sites through an analysis of reduction sequences in flaked stones. Our chronological framework will play an important role in understanding adaptation processes in the circum-Japan Sea region, as well as colonization processes into the Japanese archipelago during the Late Pleistocene.
JIA Wei Ming (Department of Archaeology, The University of Sydney ), "The study of Environmental Reconstruction and its application"
Palaeoenvironmental study applied to archaeological research has developed quickly in China in last two decades and strongly influence Chinese archaeological research. But this study is still in its early stage, because it is still immature, problematic and sometimes misinterpreting data. Some archaeologists in China have attempted to interpret past environment from climatological data. But their attempts have been speculative and unreliable because of lack of knowledge in basic theory and methodology of environmental reconstruction. Misleading ideas and simplistic methods have dominated environmental archaeology in China throughout this premature stage. A conservative aspect of Chinese environmental archaeology is that archaeologists presume that human settlement and agricultural economy in the past usually indicate a warm and humid environment. This meant that when archaeologists found the evidence of human habitant and farming economy, they would claim that there was a warm and humid environment. The general definition of Holocene Climate Optimum in Europe has been directly brought into Chinese environmental studies; generating a simplistic theory that warm and humid climate existed in northern Chinese plain, which has resulted in flourishing of human habitant and agricultural economy. This misleading theory is commonly used in Chinese environmental archaeology (Chinese Academy of Geoscience 1977; Zhou et al. 1984). Based on the principle of environmental reconstruction and pollen data derived from several sites of north and northeast China, this essay try to discuss some problems in Chinese environmental archaeology and illustrate the basic method of framework for interpreting pollen data and reconstructing past environment.
JIAO Tianlong (Bishop Museum ), "Maritime Adaptation and Agriculture in the Neolithic of Coastal Southeast China: Implications for Proto-Austronesian Expansions"
Recent archaeological investigations have documented new evidence for studying the development of maritime adaptation and agriculture in the Neolithic of coastal Southeast China (ca. 6500-3500 B.P.). The early Neolithic people were well adapted to ocean life, as evidenced by the large number of marine shellfishes and fishes. Starting around 5000 B.P., the Neolithic people on the coast of Southeast China had developed different adaptation strategies in different regions. People living on off-shore islands developed a specialized ocean foraging strategy, while the diet of the people on the mainland might have been supplemented with domesticated animals and possibly rice. At least by 4300 B.P., rice agriculture was well developed in Southeast China. Barley and wheat also diffused to this area around 4000-3500 B.P. However, archaeological evidences suggest that the Late Neolithic people still heavily relied on marine resources.
The transformation of the subsistence patterns in the Neolithic of Coastal Southeast China was vital for investigating the impetus of the proto-Austronesian dispersals. Our new discoveries suggest that both maritime foraging and agriculture had played important role in the life of the proto-Austronesians. The driving forces of the proto-Austronesians from mainland to the island of Taiwan need to be understood from a much broader perspective.
JIN Zhengyao (Research Institution of World Religions, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences), "A Reassertion that the High-Radiogenic-Lead in Shang Bronzes Originated in South-western China"
An important scientific fact has been found that numerous Shang bronzes unearthed from archaeological sites in valleys of Yellow river and Yangtze river contained so-called high-radiogenic-lead (HRL) using lead isotopic analysis. This suggests that there was an ancient 'bronze road' for transporting raw materials or products between the two valleys in Shang dynasty.
The author has long argued that the source of the HRL metal materials used in Shang bronze making could be the area of south-western China ("the South-western theory"), but a number of other scholars have argued that the source could be Qinling Mountains of northern-central China. Here the author replies to his critics.
KANEGA Kenji (Department of Archaeology, Kyushu University ), "Production and distribution mode of the Yayoi pottery of northern Kyushu"
This paper investigates the production and distribution mode of the pottery of the Middle Yayoi period (ca.B.C.200-A.D.1) in northern Kyushu, Japan. Issues concerning pottery production and distribution can be approached from organizational and economic viewpoints. In the last few years, several articles have been published emphasizing specialization and developed skills involved in the production of Yayoi pots by examining excavated pottery-making tools and misfired sherds. However, such important issues as where and how clay was obtained and how pots were distributed have not yet been sufficiently investigated.
With the above in mind, sherds of the Suku-style assemblage, spread throughout northern Kyushu in the late middle Yayoi period, were analyzed by X-Ray fluorescence analysis and Petrographic thin section analysis in order to specify the location of clay extraction and clay preparation.
The outcome suggests that the sources of clay were located near the settlements, and the pots were mainly used and distributed around them. This suggests a localized, rather than centralized, mode of production and distribution of pottery in northern Kyushu during the Middle Yayoi period.
KANG Bong-won (Kyongju University), "A Social Reconstruction of the Korean Bronze Age: Based on the Dolmens Discovered in the Southeastern Korea"
Dolmens are considered one of the principal mortuary programs in the Korean Bronze Age (ca. between 1000 and 300 B.C.). A great amount of research has been conducted by Korean and Japanese archaeologists concerning dolmen burials and their accompanying artifacts. Although many researchers still retain a traditional archaeology, some scholars became interested in a social reconstruction and they have asserted that Korean dolmen society reached chiefdom. This issue has been one of the hottest research topics among Korean archaeologists and historians and foreign archaeologists who have been involved in Korean archaeology. The outcome of this research in terms of socio-political typology is not important per se. It is important because it will be a starting point in examining formation of the early state in the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. A number of Korean scholars have taken it for granted that Korean dolmen society reached a centralized political. This paper based on the analyses of spatial distribution of dolmen and artifacts recovered from the burials argues that the dolmen society in the southeastern part of Korean peninsula and Korean peninsula in general remained egalitarian.
KANG Hyun Sook (Dongguk University Gyeongju Campus Archaeology and Arthistory Department ), "Mural Painting Tombs from Goguryeo and Chinese Gansu: A comparative study"
Mural painting tombs were constructed during the Xihan period in the political center, while disappeared after the collapse of the Han dynasty. Afterwards, they were widely introduced to Goguryeo, and modern day Liaoning and Gansu areas, China. Goguryeo tombs during the fourth and fifth centuries AD were constructed using stones, and all the walls were painted with daily lives and the ceil was decorated by painting symbolic features such as the sun and moon (Fig 1 and 2).
It has been believed that the appearance of mural painting tombs in Goguryeo reflected the cultural influence from China, and Liaoning in particular. However, painting tombs in Liaoyang and Chaoyang of Liaoning show several differences from those of Goguryeo. In the Liaoyang tombs, coffins were placed in a parallel direction, while those of Goguryeo show longitudinal arrangement. Mural chambers of Chaoyang tombs are parallelogram in shape, while Goguryeo tombs expose square plan form (Fig 3). Paintings also show different patterns: Liaoyang and Chaoyang tombs were painted predominantly with daily lives, while various symbolic elements were expressed in Goguryeo tombs. On the other hand, paintings suggest close affinities between Goguryeo and Gansu tombs.
Gansu mural painting tombs were identified in Wuwei, Juiquan, Jiayuguan and Dunhuang. Gansu tombs were influenced by Han mural painting tombs with some regional elements added. Juiquan tombs, in particular, are close to Goguryeo tombs in various aspects, including the longitudinal arrangement and painting patterns of daily lives on the wall and symbolic elements on the ceil (Fig 5). Differences are also recognized between the two: Gansu tombs were constructed with bricks and Taoist and Buddhist elements were not painted.
Similarities between the Goguryeo and Gansu tombs suggest cultural relationship between the two regions, as reflected by figures from the western region painted in Goguryeo tombs. Given the Juiquan's geographical location, it is possible that Goguryeo introduced cultural elements from the west via Juiquan. The cultural contact between Goguryeo and Quian Quin also supports the possibility. China during the late fourth century AD was divided into three dynasties, Quian Yan, Quian Quin and Dong Jin (Fig 6), and Goguryeo introduced the Buddhism via Quian Quin in 372AD. This suggests Quian Quin played a role of gateway from which Goguryeo introduced various cultural elements from the western region.
KANG In-Uk (Dept. of Archaeology & Art History, Seoul National University ), "Historical Review on The Ordos Bronzes and Pro-Xiongnu Culture problems in the Norther Steppe Zone of China"
The Ordos Bronzes, Proto-Xiongnu Culture, and the Northern Type Bronze concern almost same archaeological phenomena : the nomad cultures and its metal remains in the steppe zone of Northern China from 15th to 2nd c. A.D., almost the Karasuk period to Scytho-Siberian period in the Eurasia. Because of the different sources and views to the correlation with China, these concepts are slightly different, and in some degree, obscure.
The main problem of the Proto-xiongnu culture theory is that the substance of Proto-Xiongnu peoples(ex,Xianyun and Hunzhou) in the historical text is ambiguous and probably, nothing more than mythological meaning. Furthermore, up to now at least three archaeological cultures were classified in the Spring-Autumn period, and all of these cultures are apparently occupied independent territories and differed in material culture and burial practices. Type "jundusan"(in China, it's called Shanrong culture incorrectly) located in the Yanshan mountainous region and assimilated to Yan dynasty. Type "Maoqinggou" located in the Ordos Plateau and in some degree, lived on half-pastured and sedentary economics. Type "Yanglang" located in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous province and partly qingyang region of Gansu.
We shoud not ignore the correlation between the Ordos Bronzes and the Scytho-Siberian style bronze.
As to the concept of the Ordos Bronzes, I suggest that the definition of the Ordos Bronzes limits to the collected bronzes until the foundation of People Republic of China. Proto-Xiongnu culture also have to be limited to the nomad culture, existed mainly in the Ordos Plateau (type Maoqinggou).
In my opinion, the Steppe culture of northern part of China could be the most fittable to this archaeological pheonomena.
KATO Hirofumi (Hokkaido University ), "A Study of the Microblade Flaking Technology in Northeast Asia."
Historic developments in Northeast Asia are characterized by border-crossing movements, and the perspective of resent research also has dealt with this broad spatial development of humans and materials. The main issues currently facing the paleolithic studies in Northeast Asia, we can be listed as follows. 1)problems of the periods of humanoid immigration to higher latitudes in Northeast Asia regions. 2)problems of the origin and diffusion homo sapiens in the Northeast Asia in the subsequent periods. 3)problems of the adaptive behavior and the technological innovation of humankind in the period of glacial environments.
Among of them, especially, understanding the origin and diffusion of Late Paleolithic flaking technologies is a crucial problem in the study of this area. In this paper, I will focus the microblade flaking technology in the Northeast Asia. In the Northeast Asia is known the various types of microblade flaking technique, and historically are recorded several famous archaeological sites. Its technological origin has been regarded as the second part of the late paleolithic age. However, recent Siberian researches clearly show that the origin of microblade flaking has related with the initial late Paleolithic age, for example, collections from such sites as Kara-Bom site and Ust-Karakol 1 site in the Mountain Altaj region, Makarovo 4 site, Bratsk sea archaeological sites in the Cis-Baikal region. Also, in Hokkaido island has excavated the Kashiwa-dai microblade complex, dated older than 20ka BP. Situation is changed. Now we should begin to examine the formation process of the microblade flaking technique. Although, studies have been made on the reconstruction of the regional variants for microblade techniques, there is little agreement on studies with holistic point of view. What seems to be lacking is the consideration of the global point of view from Northeast Asia rather than local one.
The purpose of this study is to make a frame for the research design and to examine the formation process and its diffusion waves of the microblade flaking technology in the Northeast Asia. I would like to describe the chronological sequences of the microblade technology at first. Secondly, I will present the technological types on the microblade flaking technologies and diffusion process in the Northeast Asia.
KATO Hirofumi (Hokkaido University ), Igor SHEVKOMUD and MASAKI Naganuma, "Emergence of the oldest pottery and "Oshipovka Culture" in Russian Far East"
Emergence of the Oldest Pottery in Asian Far East is not only currently hot topic in East Asian Archaeology, also in world archaeology. Since 1990 years, many researchers has discussed about it. As well known, in this area had been found the oldest pottery around 13-12 ka BP. (it is not calibrated dating). Those complexes that included the oldest pottery, we can present in Russian Far east ("Amur" river basin and the Maritime region) and in Japanese islands (Honshu island and Kyushu island).
Archaeological complex with the oldest pottery are placed in the early stage in Neolithic culture in continental side, on the other hand, the initial stage Jomon culture in Japanese island. Although, it is clear that those complex has looted far eastern microblade industries, characterized the wedge-shaped core technology (it is included some of variations of "Yubetsu microblade flaking method"). Those complexes have same roots or quite different basement. It is important archaeological discussion, but is not simple. In order to solve that matter, it is essential to organize the comparative research with international cooperation. And also it is necessary to examine on the same archaeological context and to compare with worldwide point view.
We have been excavated and continued Joint research project about the transition late Paleolithic to early Neolithic in the Lower Amur basin. In this paper will be present current results for the our joint research and consider the role of the "Oshipovka" culture in the Transition period the late Paleolithic to the early Neolithic on East Asia.
KAUFMANN Dawn (Washington Univeristy in St. Louis ), "Paleoethnobotanical Investigation of Subsistence Practices in Northern Japan During Two Time Periods "
Questions relating to prehistoric and proto-historic subsistence practices are of paramount interest in Japan. Archaeological evidence indicates that in the period between 5000-1000 BCE Japan supported some of the largest population densities in the world. The mode of subsistence practiced by Jomon and later peoples has been diversely modeled, with models ranging from strict fishing based cultures to hunter-gatherers to agriculturist societies. Those subsistence based cultural models are still being widely debated. It is only in the last decade that researchers have begun to investigate the subtleties and complexities within the non-discreet entities of hunting-gathering-fishing and food production as a spectrum of plant and animal-people interactions. Paleoethnobotanical studies are one of the most accessible and direct methods of investigating subsistence patterns and practices in the archaeological record providing the evidence with which to evaluate these possibilities.
I analyzed macrobotanical remains from samples recovered from the site of Minamishimamatsu, in Hokkaido, Japan. Architectural remains at Minamishimamatsu indicate two temporal components to the site. While the majority of the site dates to around 1000 BCE, there was also a single pit house structure that dates to around CE 700. The samples in this study were collected in 1990 under the supervision of Dr. Gary Crawford, University of Toronto. This archaeobotanical study includes 1.) samples taken from the single Ezo-Haji component structure, and 2.) samples from a single Late Jomon structure, thus allowing a look at the broad changes in plant use and diet on either side of what is considered the critical period of wet-rice agriculture introduction at 400 BCE.
The work of Crawford and his students demonstrates greater variability in plant?뱎eople interactions in Japan than previously hypothesized. Beginning in the Early Jomon period (ca. 5000 BCE) in Northern Japan, indigenous peoples engaged in varying subsistence behaviors, including wild plant management, and plant husbandry. While wet rice agriculture was never adopted in Hokkaido, other sites in the region have provided archaeobotanical evidence of agriculture. In fact, the earliest AMS date on a rice grains from Japan have been recovered from site in the region contemporaneous to the earlier component of Minamishmamatsu suggesting that plant cultivation, including dry-land rice production, was a part of the subsistence practices employed by Late Jomon people in northern Japan. In samples from the more recent component I found remains of both domesticated broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum ssp. miliaceum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica) providing strong evidence for a notable degree of cultural investment in agriculture in a culture that has long been viewed as non-food producing.
KIM Gwongu (Keimyung University), "A Consideration of the residential practices during the Korean Bronze Age and its family system"
Reviewing general understanding of residential practices of the Korean Bronze Age and its family system has been done. Because they are related minimum social unit as a consumption and production unit. Investigating changes in floor plan of the dwelling sites over time in each region has been done. In addition the economic basis of the Korean Bronze Age has been considered to check which family type would be more adaptible to the subsistence type such as intensified rice agriculture. Examples of extended family type in the agricultural villages during the Joseon Period (1392-1910) have been used as historical ethnographic data. This analogy must be historically direct relational analogy in some sense although there remains a lot of problems. These risky problems will be challenges of future research directions.
KIM Jangsuk (Chonnam National University): The Archaeology of the Korean Chulmun
A Brief Review
The Korean Neolithic is also called the 'Chulmun Period,' named after the main pottery style of this period. This period, dated beween 5,000 and 1300 BC is characterized by the use of pottery in hunter-gatherer context. This paper briefly reviews the history of the Korean Neolithic studies, and discusses current issues and prospect.
KIM Minkoo (University of California, Berkeley), "Cultural Complexity of Jomon Hunter-Gatherers and Changes in Plant Exploitation at Sannai Maruyama"
This paper examines the results of paleoethnobotanical research at the Sannai Maruyama site, which was occupied during the Early and Middle Jomon periods (c. 5900 to 4300 cal BP) in northern Honshu, Japan. Contrary to the expectations derived from the conventional assumption that Jomon hunter-gatherers enjoyed bountiful wild resources, it is argued that the paleoethnobotanical assemblages show considerable temporal changes, indicating people's selection among wide range of plant resources. The results of analyses are considered in the contexts of ecological models developed in anthropology, and the implications for understanding cultural complexity of prehistoric hunter-gatherers in East Asia are discussed.
KUTSUNA Keizo (Archaeological Research Center, Okayama University), "The treatment of children by their society in ancient western Japan"
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the problem that there is a difference in how to treat the child in the ancient society according to the degree of the development.
As for child's grave in Japan, the case buried bringing the pottery coffin which buries the child together in the place besides the adult until the early modern age after Jomon period has sometimes seen in Japan. Then, to avoid the secondary burial, the example of the human bone's remaining limited the region to Setouchi area from an almost exact age to the first term of Kofun period from Yayoi period by the use of the child of a lot of pottery coffins, and examined the transition of the location of the pottery coffin grave. As a result, 1) in the early and middle Yayoi period, the one dotted in the same graveyard as the outside of the village, and the adult etc.: 2) at the latter Yayoi period, there were the one scattered in the graveyard, but at the sametime, there were the one to take the form to which 3-4 pieces are overcrowded outside the village to increase rapidly, and the one that only the pottery coffin graves are collected in the circle-shaped moated burial precient appeared, and the overcrowdedness form becomame popular. 3) And until the early Kofun period, we can chase a rough transition of returning to the pattern which were dotted from the becoming less of overcrowdedness form .
The above proves that the overcrowdedness of the pottery coffin grave around the village is remarkable at the early Kofun period from the latter Yayoi period. If it is thought that a special location different from the special burial method of pottery coffin and the adult is the appearance of the consciousness of distinction by the group to the child, it can be said that the change in this Setouchi region shows the situation which less gradually after the consciousness of distinction by the group to the child rose very much. Because this phenomenon especially became remarkable at the end of the latter Yayoi period,
It is thought that there is a possibility that a social change when the tumulus appeared had a big influence on the change in the consciousness of distinction by the group to the child including such the age rank and the burial method, in a word "the idea of child".
LEE Gyoung-Ah and Gary W. CRAWFORD (University of Toronto at Mississauga), "Changes in Plant Use in the Yi-Luo Basin"
Plant remains from the Yiluo basin, spanning the Late Peiligang through the Han periods (6000 BC-AD 220), are providing the first comprehensive diachronic view of plant related subsistence and human-environmental interaction in northwestern Henan, China. As a part of the Yiluo River Collaborative Archaeological Survey Project our archaeobotanical analysis focuses on 55 samples from nearly two-dozen sites that span a 5000-year period. Most samples come from house floors and pits exposed in terrace cuts. At the beginning of this period is the relatively egalitarian Peiligang while the latest portion of the sequence represents sociopolitically complex societies. The project aims 1) to document economic changes through time in the Yiluo region; 2) to establish a fine chronology and the sequence of agricultural development in the Yiluo basin based on AMS dating of crop remains; and 3) to compare the palaeoethnobotany of site types (primary, secondary centres and peripheries). The analysis is ongoing, but so far among the carbonized plant remains are14 identified plant taxa and a few unidentified types among the more than 31,000 seeds. Foxtail millet is the main crop in the earliest samples in the collection (Late Peiligang period). In later periods other cultigens in addition to foxtail millet are broomcorn millet, rice, and wheat. Two other plants, beefsteak plant and soybean have been recovered from post-Peiligang samples but their domesticated status is open to question. Foxtail millet is dominant in all periods, but wheat became abundant in the Early Shang or Erligang period (ca. 1600?-1300 BC). Rice appears to have been of little significance until the late period in our samples although phytolith analysis suggests the presence of rice in the Yiluo basin from the Late Yangshao period. Although the number and contextual diversity of the samples is small, the archaeobotanical analysis shows considerable promise.
LEE Hong-jong (Korea University), "Cultural Contacts and Cultural Changes in the Bronze Age Society in Chungnam Area in the 8-6th Century B.C."
Korean Bronze Age culture went a drastic change around 800 B.C. with the appearance of the so-called Songguk-ri culture that included a full-scale agriculture of wet-rice cultivation. The Songguk-ri culture differed from the earlier period not only in archaeological record such as houses and pottery, but also in settlement landscape, land use and other overall cultural pattern. Since these new elements first appeared in the western coastal area of southern Chungcheong province and they are very distictive from earlier ones, it is possible that the Songguk-ri culture may have diffused from the area south of Shandong peninsula of China.
The Songguk-ri culture that first appeared in the westem coastal area spread into the whole region of southern Chungcheong province following three routes and made contact with local cultures in each area. In this process, new house and pottery styles sometimes blended with local counterparts or either styles remained intact. These archaeological data suggest the introduction and diffusion of wet-rice cultivation took different process in each area.
Regional differences of the Songguk-ri culture can allow us to divide the southern Chungcheong province into western coastal, northern, southern, and eastern areas. Both western coastal and southern areas show the spread and completion of the Songguk-ri culture. The northern area shows the local society selectively accepted the Songguk-ri culture with little change in pottery style. The eastern area also shows strong local elements that are somewhat weaker than in the northern area. The regional contact of the Songguk-ri culture and consequent regional differences may be due to the combination of various factors such as the scale of local Community, economic landscape, willingness to adopt a new economic system, and so on.
LEE Sung-joo (Gangneung National University), "Review of Silla and Gaya Archaeology"
There was little noticeable progress in the Silla and Gaya archaeology until the later days of 1970s when the National Institute of Cultural Heritage Management (OCP) started to carry out the field research programs as a part of the culture heritage development projects of Gyeongju, the ancient Silla capital. Koreans were able to study the Silla and Gaya archaeology independently with their own methods and aims for the first time from the time of the excavations of royal mounded burials and architectural remains. Korean archaeologists acquired an advanced knowledge of appropriate field methods and created chronological sequences for various artifacts. During the 1980s Silla and Gaya archaeologists made an effort to describe the history of material culture based on elaborate chronological sequences, and at the same time set about to reconstruct the way that power was distributed and the relationships between polities. This was accomplished partly through academic dialogue on meaningful controversies such as the chronology of proto-historic ceramic assemblages, the distinction of the Silla "state" and Gaya "confederation". In every aspect, the 1990s was a turning point in archaeological practices of Silla and Gaya area as widespread rescue excavations began and have now produced an enormous amount of archaeological data. Excavations of burials and settlements have been performed even in areas that were once thought to be peripheral to ancient states. It has become, therefore, easier to understand the relationships between the centre of a given polity and more "peripheral areas" of Silla and Gaya. From the 1990's, not only did the excavation of the common habitation or burial sites begin, but various special sites have been excavated out to their boundaries, 100 percent. In sum, the direction and scale of Silla/Gaya archaeology and prehistory has been remarkably changed and scholars have become more interested in specialized themes or theoretically-oriented research.
LEE Sung-joo (Gangneung National University) and Martin BALE (University of Toronto), "South-central Korea and the development of complex societies, circa 300 BC to AD 400"
Archaeological approaches to the period 300 BC to AD 400 in the Korean peninsula have overemphasized the analysis of mortuary features, grave goods, and historical texts. Studies have focused on regions associated with groups named in ancient texts such as Byeon and Jin. This research agenda has contributed to a skewed understanding of the formation of archaic states. Excavations in the south-central region (Nam River basin and coastal area to the immediate south) in the 1990s yielded important archaeological data from this period. In this paper we survey and interpret settlement and mortuary data from this region to better understand the role of the south-central region in the formation of archaic states. Ditch-enclosed political centres and large-scale megalithic burials appeared in the south coastal area starting around 300 B.C. Bronze production was important, and evidence of conflict appeared. In the period following elite settlements, ports that traded with polities in Kyushu, labour-intensive burials, and iron production developed in a number of local polities.
LEE Sungjoon (Paekche Research Institute) and KIM Myungjin (Korea Paleo-Environmant Research Institute), "Modelling historical trade and economical boundaries in the Proto-three Kingdom period in the middle Korea peninsula"
Proto-three nations period in middle of Korea peninsula was the stage before formation of ancient kingdoms in Korea and the period that new social systems were started to establish after inflowing iron culture of China.
Nevertheless proto-three nations period included various historical and archaeological information related to formation of ancient Kingdoms, it was insufficient to make point of view for social system. For example the great proportion of archaeological approaches for proto-three nations is only focusing on chronological view of each site or artifact.
So we need to find motive power of formation of ancient state with view for social system.
As a approach of this kind of aspect, this paper will make economical boundaries based on proto-three nations sites and estimate political and administrative boundaries using circulation of traditional markets and geographic system.
LI Min (University of Michigan), "Becoming Shang: The Perspective from Animal Bones at Daxinzhuang"
Animals constituted an important link between humans and the spiritual, cultural and natural world. Changes in the conception of this relationship can be indicative of social transformations. This paper investigates the effect and manifestation of colonization and acculturation at Daxinzhuang, an important Shang settlement in eastern China, through a preliminary analysis of animal bones from diverse archaeological contexts. By exploring a region on the margin of impinging state power and approaching faunal remains representing a broad range of social interactions, this study will contribute to a comprehensive understanding on the process of ?쐀ecoming Shang??in the late 2nd millennium B.C.
LI Yung-ti (Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan) and Kwang-tzu CHEN, "Anyang Bronze Casting Technology: study of section-mold technology and compositional analysis of mol"
The paper examines mold fragments excavated from Anyang in the 1930s by the Institute of History and Philology (IHP), Academia Sinica. Through comparison of mold fragments found at different Anyang bronze foundry sites, the paper argues that a significant change in the section-mold technology took place during the Yinxu period. Changes include the introduction of mortises and tenons on the mold sections, and the use of base extension for cores. Both would have significantly enhanced the stability of the mold assembly, which would in turn reduce the rate of failed casting and increase the productivity of the foundry. The two types of technology can be observed among the molds excavated by IHP. The Type I molds, found mainly underneath Foundation B5, Xiaotun, represent the simpler and perhaps earlier technology. The Type II molds, which are found north of Foundation B5 at Daliankeng, and are the most common type of molds found at other Anyang foundry sites, represent the more advanced section-mold technology. Compositional analysis is then performed on Type I and Type II molds in order to determine if different materials or manufacturing techniques were used. The paper ends with a discussion on the socio-political variables and the possible impact of such technological changes.
LIU Li (La Trobe University, Australia ), "Wild and Domestic Water Buffaloes in China: Zooarchaeological Investigations"
This project is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of water buffaloes, including zooarchaeological and genetic investigations. It will be presented in two parts: this paper focuses on a zooarchaeological study of several buffalo assemblages, and the following paper by Dongya Yang discusses the implications of genetic analysis of buffalo remains.
Buffalo remains have been found at many Neolithic and Bronze Age sites in China. Most of them have been identified to Bubalus Mephistopheles, which is generally regarded as a domesticated form. Among these sites Hemudu in Zhejiang is the oldest (ca. 5000-3000 B.C.), providing the earliest date for domesticated buffalo in the world. It is notable that B. Mephistopheles and the modern domestic swamp buffalo in Asia (including China), Bubalus bubalis, are different species; the latter is domesticated from a central Indian stock of wild swamp buffalo, called arni (Bubalus arnee).
Some scholars believe that B. bubalis was introduced into China from the south in the second millennium BC, while others insist that the B. bubalis in China was domesticated locally. However, neither opinion is supported by hard evidence. In this current study, we investigate taxonomic and genetic differences between several buffalo assemblages from China, analyze their status as either wild or domestic, discuss the relationship between buffalo and humans, as revealed in archaeological contexts, and search for the earliest appearance of domestic buffalo in China.
The results of our initial investigation suggest that the buffaloes found at Neolithic and early Bronze Age sites were most likely wild animals, and that more than one species may have existed. The activities associated with wild buffalo hunting and feasting were a long-standing cultural tradition in ancient China, with significant ritual, political, economic and ecological implications. The understanding of this tradition provides new insights to the study of the development of complex society in ancient China.
When and how the domestic buffalo was introduced into China remain to be investigated in the future, but some clues point to a trade route, known as the Southern Silk Road, which existed in the first millennium BC, if not earlier, connecting southwest China with South Asia.
LU Tracey Lie-Dan (Department of Anthropology, Chinese University of Hong Kong), "Intra-Disciplinary or Multi-disciplinary? Some Thoughts on Current Archaeological Research Approaches"
Since the 1960s more and more scientific approaches have been applied to archaeological studies. Multi-disciplinary has become a norm in archaeological methodology in the west, as well as in mainland China after the 1980s. In South China, multi-disciplinary approach has been applied to two archaeological assemblages from 1999 to the present. Pollen, flotation, phytolith and residue analyses have been used to reconstruct the past environment and natural resources, as well as human subsistence strategies, while use-wear and archaeological experiment were used to investigate the ch창in op챕ratoire of stone and organic tools, and the manufacturing of pottery.
The integration of these approaches have obtained new data, enabling a much better understand of the past culture and natural environments. However, after several years of working experiences, it seems that there are questions arising. What is multi-disciplinary approach? Does archaeology need a multi- or intra-disciplinary study? What are the pros and cons of applying various scientific approaches in archaeological studies? How to interpret discrepancies between different disciplines? These questions will be briefly discussed in this paper.
MATSUGI Takehiko (Faculty of Letters, Okayama University), "A New Perspective on the Beginning of the Kofun Period Protohistoric Japan: From Group Oriented to Individual Oriented"
The transition from the Yayoi to Kofun period is characterized as a long-term change of the configuration of material culture. First, enclosed villages which had evoked exclusive group identification gradually changed into the larger open settlements facing the trade routes. Second, collective cemeteries of homogeneous inhumations were replaced by segmented burial mounds including a few coffins each with various grave goods, showing the identity of individual families or persons. Third, the bronze ritual goods, which is thought to have been used in communal ceremonies, were abandoned. These changes progressed during the latest period of the Yayoi era in the main area of the Japanese archipelago, indicating the shift from the group-oriented to the individualizing types of chiefdoms.
The author consideres that this shift was motivated by the restructuring of mentalities which were based upon the fundamental economical changes related in this period. Since the 1st century AD, iron imported mainly from the Korean peninsula became principal materials for tools instead of locally yielded stone. It indicates increasing dependence on the external resources gained through the long-distance trade sometimes accompanied by warlike activities, where particularly talented individuals as traders or warriors had a chance to show off their successes and win reputations which consequently turned into prestige and power.
The emergence of these individuals, whom the author names Jonathan after Buck's famous novel, seems to have undermined the bonds of traditional communities which had been represented in exclusive settlements, collective burials and the bronze artifacts for communal rituals. The author concludes that this process resulted in the formation of the individualizing type of chiefdoms characterized by the material culture, such as hierarchic and diversified burials and prestige goods, evoking the differentiation of each persons or families.
MATSUMOTO Naoko (Faculty of Letters, Okayama University), "Why gender archaeology is not popular in Japan"
Gender archaeology remains quite minor in Japanese archaeology while it has attained a popular position in many European and American countries since its advocacy in 1980s. This paper examines the reasons why gendered perspective does not become popular in Japanese archaeology from a number of angles: social factors, academic situations, and archaeological contexts. In Japan, women's history has a long and strong tradition, and women have been rather visible in prehistory, too. It has been recognized that patriarchy did not pervade in every aspect of Japanese society for a long time and bilateral system partly persisted well into the early Modern era. In spite of the academic tradition and rich archaeological material, recent theoretical and conceptual developments in gender archaeology has not been well adopted in Japan. The author points out that we should examine particular historical contexts concerning the relationship between politics and historical discourses in Japan to understand the stagnation of gender archaeology.
MENG Xianwu and LI Guichang (Archaeologocal Team of Anyang City ), "The Houses with Courtyard (Siheyuan) at Yinxu"
The fieldwork of the last century discovered dozens of house remains at Yinxu, the last capital of the Shang dynasty of China, demonstrating that the houses built on the rammed earth platform were one of the important constructions of the Shangy era. This paper presents the latest discoveries of the rammed earth foundations at Yinxu and discusses the functions of these constructios.
The latest house foundations are discovered at the north locus of Beixujiaqiao village, south Yinxu. They appear in two types of structures. Type A is in the shape of traditional Chinese constructions Siheyuan, or compound with houses around a courtyard. Type B may be termed as 'Weiwu' or quadrangle building. The characteristics of their structure suggest that they are not built for the commoners. We argue that they may be used as the administration buildings of the Shang officers or the chiefs of the Shang clans.
MENGONI Luisa-Elena (University College London ), "Copying with Changes: Patterns of Social and Cultural Diversification in Pre-Imperial Sichuan (5th and 3rd Century B.C.)"
This paper aims to investigate the changes in the social and cultural composition of selected communities in Sichuan between the 5th and the 3rd century BC, during the time of the Qin expansion in the region, as reflected in the mortuary remains dated to this period. The archaeological evidence from a number of sites in the Chengdu Plain shows a complex and highly mobile social landscape, where various social and cultural groups were closely interacting in the area, often redifining their respective identities and funerary practices. The discussion will concentrate on the chronological and typological variations identified in the mortuary remains of Shifang in the Chengdu Plain and in the cemeteries of Yingjing in south-west Sichuan. These two examples show how the different cultural composition and social stratification of the individual communities shaped and affected the nature of their funerary practices, with the maintenance over time of a local group identity in Shifang and the emphasis on differentiating distinct social and cultural groups in Yingjing.
Miller Bryan Kristopher (National Chengchi University, Institute of Russian Studies ), "Xiongnu Mortuary Analysis"
The majority of Xiongnu archaeology has relied upon burials across northern China, Mongolia and Southern Siberia, yet these studies have only recently begun to be integrated and more systematically reported. Recent archaeological work in Trans-Baikalia and northern Mongolia on both large scale tombs and "common" burials has brought to light numerous issues of Xiongnu burial customs and related material culture which both build upon and seriously challenge previous understandings of Xiongnu society and customs. By placing recent archaeological work within a comprehensive and dialectic framework of the greater body of Xiongnu archaeological material, we may begin to open new avenues of inquiry as well as establish research agendas for guiding further work and reassessments of previous remains. Our understanding of aristocratic burials of the Xiongnu Empire have, until recently, relied upon a handful of minimal excavations or reports and vague textual references. The recent, more systematic excavations have brought particular variables of the mortuary remains to light that were previously ignored or missed. The over-structure of the tombs, the assemblage of prestige goods, and the accompanying burials present three important variables for future Xiongnu mortuary analyses.
MITSUMOTO Jun (Archaeological Research Center, Okayama University ), "New Direction in the Archaeology of Human Body in Japan and its Application to the Social Body in the Kofun Period"
While archaeological studies of the human body have been discussed actively in Europe and America, some Japanese scholars have also started to focus on the ancient human body recently. This paper aims to show the outline of the current trend in the Japanese archaeology of the body and my practical analysis of the social body in the Kofun period. Japanese approaches to the social body include four viewpoints: cognitive archaeology, bodily operation, body image and symbolism, and critical analysis of our own body. Human body, however, is still often treated as simply a natural object in Japanese archaeology, which I consider is the problem with the classical thought which regards the body as natural under the false premise of universal humanness through the history. I propose an alternative approach to the body as being historically constructed by both universal and distinctive factors. This perspective enables us to understand particular human images in the past, and to obtain deeper understanding of the society and the culture from the reconstructed body and human images.
After examining the research trend in Japanese archaeology, I analyze the body images in the Kofun period from the viewpoint of symbolism and cognition to discuss how the body was constructed historically. Analysis of the placement of burial goods in tumuli reveals that valued parts of the body changed through the Kofun period: from the concentration of burial goods around the head in the early stage to the distribution of them to each part of the body such as the arms, waist, and legs in the later stage. This change also means the change of the relation between the objects and the body. I consider that cognitive archaeology offers an important framework for interpreting this phenomenon. Considering that human cognitive structure is based on the bodily experience, I argue that the change in their image of the body was related to their image of the world such as social hierarchy and how to symbolize the dead.
MIYAMOTO Kazuo (Kyushu University), "Emergence and Spread of Agriculture in East Asia"
The agriculture of Korean Peninsula, whose origins can be traced back to the cereal agriculture of northern China, spread along the western coast of the peninsula. Broomcorn millet had appeared around 4,000 BC at the Chitamni site, where northern-Chinese style agricultural stone tools such as motors, pestles and hoes had also been employed. The spread of this cultural complex of domesticated grains and agricultural stone tools extending to the southern and eastern coasts of Korean Peninsula coincided with the beginning of the middle Neolithic period on the Korean Peninsula when the pottery style of the western coast spread to these regions along with the northern Chinese agricultural stone tools and willow-leaf shaped polished arrowheads. Because the broomcorn millet and the foxtail millet have recently been found at the middle Neolithic Tongsamdong site on the southern coast of Korean Peninsula, northern Chinese agriculture was probably diffused far to the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula in the period of expansion of this pottery style. This is the first stage of the emergence of Agriculture in north-east Asia. The first stage was derived from a mixed cereal agriculture of northern China.
Rice cultivation emerged c. 10,000 BP in the middle Yangtze valley of China, and domesticated rice spread to surrounding areas from this center. It is well known that the domesticated rice gradually spread to northern China, and finally reached to the middle Yellow River valley in the Yang-shao period where and when rice was incorporated among the cereals of the northern Chinese agriculture. On the other hand, the evidence of domesticated rice along the western coast of Korean peninsula has recently increased. The evidence is based on the carbonized rice seeds and rice phytoliths. Date of these specimens are mainly concentrated on c. 2,000 BC, although the evidence of such an early date for domesticated rice in the northeast of the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria has not yet been attached. This evidence and the route of the spread of domesticated rice in inland China indicates that domesticated rice reached to the lower valley of Hang-gang on the western coast of Korean peninsula, from the Shandong peninsula in China. The second stage of agriculture in north-east Asia involved a diffusion of domesticated rice from Shandong peninsula to the lower Hangang valley and southward on the basis of northern Chinese cereal agriculture.
After 1,500 BC, rice paddy field agriculture in southern Korean peninsula was established accompanying with mixed cereal agriculture. This is the third stage of agriculture in the north-east Asia. At this time the Neolithic age of Korean peninsula changed to the Bronze Age or to the plain pottery period. The culture complex of the plain pottery period was influenced by the Liao-dong district of China. This culture complex is based on the new stone tools such as stone reaping knife, flat plano-convex stone adze, quadrangular polished stone axe with unifacially bevelled edge and Liaodong style axe. This cultural complex was spread to the Korean peninsula from Shandong peninsula through the Liaodong district. The third stage of agriculture produced the Yayoi culture of Japanese archipelago.
MIZOGUCHI Koji (Kyushu University), "Fragmentation and identity politics: Hyper-capitalism and archaeological discursive formation"
This paper attempts to illustrate the parallelism between the "post-processual attitude" in archaeology and the operation of the hyper-capitalist economy and to suggest a way to cope with this vicious interdependence. Post-processual archaeologies can be characterized as a "negative paradigm", the paradigm based upon the epistemological stance that the knowledge that no unified knowledge of the world is possible is the only knowledge which is sustainable. The "deconstruction" of belief in the unified knowledge of the world has resulted in the destruction of a discursive space for critical and constructive dialogue. A majority of practitioners of post-processual archaeologies would argue that what they are after is quite the contrary; opening up an increasing number of discursive spaces for freer, critical dialogue. However what we are actually witnessing appears to be the creation of mutually segregated discursive spaces/fields, or "miniature paradigms", which do not communicate with one another. The paper argues that the proliferation of post-processual miniature-paradigms is an expression of the deepening of the social trend driven by the hyper-capitalistic social formation which reproduces itself by continuously creating differences and relativising everything as quickly as possible, and suggests that the intentional creation of a public discursive domain in which archaeologists are obliged to not only tolerate but also continue to discuss about each other's differences is one viable remedy.
MIZOGUCHI Koji (Kyushu University), "Ritual and social stratification: the case of Middle and Late Yayoi period northern Kyushu, Japan"
This paper examines the character of interdependence between ritual and social stratification and its transformation in the Yayoi period, Japan.
Ritual practices can be understood to constitute an autonomous sphere of communication, or a communication system, which is interconnected to other spheres of social communications in the form of making sense of them in its own, or 'self-referential'manner. With this general framework in mind the paper investigates the mortuary practices and the use and deposition of bronze implements in Northern Kyushu Middle and Late Yayoi periods in terms of their co-transformation with other spheres of social organisation.
The outcome revealed that a theme of symbolic representation in mortuary communication changed from the promotion of the sense of communal togetherness to the signification of genealogical concerns in the late Middle Yayoi. Slightly later, the ritual representation of communality began to take its material expression in the form of the deposition of bronze weapon-shaped implements. In timing, those significant changes roughly coincided with the stabilization of local settlement structures, and hence intra- and inter-communal relations, and the speaker argues that the stabilization of social relations gave rise to the emergence of exclusive access by certain groups in a community to important allocative and authoritative resources and to lay the foundation of subsequent social stratification.
MO Duowen (Beijing University), "Effects of Holocene Environmental Changes on the Development of Archaeological Cultures in Different Regions of China"
Niuheliang Site in the west of Liaoning Province, Miaozigou Site in the south of center Inner Mongolia, and Dadiwan Site in the east of Gansu Province are all the important Neolithic archaeological sites in North China. Niuheliang Site of Hongshan Culture reflects some characteristics of early civilization. The Miaozigou Culture only continued for about 500 years due to the expansion of the late stage of Yangshao Culture. Dadiwan Site is located in the Hulu River drainage in the middle Loess Plateau. The first stage of Dadiwan Culture was one of the earliest centers of agriculture in North China. Human activities here lasted for nearly 3ka because of the relatively close and favourable local environment. The paleoenvironment of the three regions is restructured by the analyses of sedimentary characteristics, clay minerals and sporo-pollens. Based on the comparative studies of cultural characteristics, geographical localities, environmental changes, and the relationships between paleoenvironment and ancient cultures, some conclusions can be worked out as follows.
(1) The areas experienced the similar climatic fluctuations during the Holocene Megathermal. It shouldbe attributed to the fact that they are all located in the temperate zone of North China where the Eastern Asian Monsoon drived the climate change.
(2) Besides the similarities of environmental changes, the differences between the regions are obvious too. The hüls in the west of Liaoning Province represented the relatively humid climate with more precipitation, and the Loess hüls where Dadiwan Site is located had the higher temperature because of the lower latitude, while the Holocene climate of Huangqihai area was drier and cooler than the others.
(3) All of regions are very sensitive to the climatic changes because they are on the edge of Neolithic agro-culture region. At about 8kaB.P., not long after the beginning of the Megathermal, agriculture developed quickly in the Dadiwan area and the west of Liaoning Province. This trend continued until ökaB.P. and the cultures kept pace with Zhongyuan (middle North China) area. The climate became slightly drier and cooler during the period of 6 -5kaB.P. but didnot cause an negative effect on the development of agriculture in the two regions. The expansion of the late stage of Yangshao Culture must be caused by the progresss of culture itself, and also may be concerned with the contradiction between human being and land caused by enlarged population and deteriorated climate.
Because of the unfavourable natural conditions such äs climate, landform and land available for agriculture in Huangqihai area, human activity before 5.5kaB.P. has never been found. Then, thecontradiction between human betng and land emerged in each agriculture area and forced some people to immigrate here. The paleoclimate became much drier and cooler after 5kaB.P. and arosed an intensively impact on the archaeological cultures in North China, not only made the short-lived culture in the Huangqihai area disappeared, but also the relatively advanced archaeological cultures in the west of Liaoning Province and the east of Gansu Province declined obviously. However, ancient cultures in Zhongyuanarea where the precipitation and the temprature were higher than the mentioned- above three regions, still kept improvement marked with the emergency of thriving Longshan Culture, and then steadily entered into civilization times.