SEAA

SEAA Society for East Asian Archaeology

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


A

AHN, Sung-Mo (Dept. of Archaeology and Art History, Wonkwang Univ. Korea)
Problems of Size Statistics of Archaoebotanical Crop Grains
Panel: New data and issues of archaeobotany in East Asia (Gary CRAWFORD, Hiroki OBATA, Zhijun ZHAO)

I'll discuss problems of size statistics of archaeobotanical crop grains. How many grains can represent the population and must have been measured? How can we choose grains for measurement from samples? How accurately can we sort undeveloped grains? Should we report the size measurement of undeveloped grains? There occur some errors of measurement according to the method of measurement. There are also some limitations when comparing different size statistics whether from archaeobotanical or modern samples. In order to deal with above questions, I'll introduce my experiment using rice grains from Sacheonri site (c. 3000 BP) in Korea, and discuss recent issues of Hemudu rice as unripe wild one.

AIKENS, Clyde Melvin (University of Oregon Department of Anthropology and Museum of Cultural and Natural History, USA)
Inter-regional Interaction in Pacific Northeast Asia: Early Pottery, Bronze and Iron Technology, and the Emergence of Social Complexity (with Song Nai Rhee and Irina S. Zhushchikhovskaya)
Panel: Inter-regional interaction in East Asian Prehistory and History (Francis ALLARD)

Inter-regional interaction is ancient in Pacific Northeast Asia, beginning in terminal Pleistocene times. A great zone extending from the Russian Far East through Korea, Japan, and China displays a cultural unity that begins with shared Upper Paleolithic technologies. It continues with the widespread emergence of pottery technology during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition and a later spread of bronze and iron technology, and culminates in later Holocene times with the emergence of social complexity at varying levels across the same zone. This deep history documents a complex and continuing interplay of environmental, technological, and sociological variables that has given rise to a whole series of unique yet unquestionably interwoven traditional cultures of far northeast Asia.

ALEKSANDROVNA, Fedoseeva Svetlana (Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Sakha Republic (Yakutia) Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Neolithic of Northeast Asia
Panel: NN

Detailed features of Syalakh (6,500-5,200 before present) and Belkachy (5,200-4,100 before present) Neolithic cultures, and Ymyiakhtakh (4100-3300 before present) culture transitional from Neolithic to bronze age are reported. Proposition is determined that each of the cultures consequently occupied the territory of Yakutia, as well as Taimyr and Chukotka. Substantial differences in the tool inventory of the sites of the cultures present in the south of the area (in taiga zone) and in the north (in tundra zone) have not yet been observed.
At first sight, these cultures areas strike with their "enormous" territories. One cannot exclude that definition of such wide areas is in some sense explained by the fact that comparison of archaeological assemblages between each other is made by very general features due to the lack of materials (especially from the northern sites). With data accumulation, the comparison of assemblages will be made by much greater number of tool series than now. In time, this can lead to separation of special local variants and chronological stages for various cultures.
However, those in doubt as to wide areas of archaeological cultures of Northeast Asia should have in mind that by the time of the first Russian pioneers in the 17th century the related Evenk tribes inhabited as wide areas in the region.
In summary of the report the hypothesis will be proved that populations of Belkachy culture are connected with the origin of various tribes of American Indians of Na-dene language family.

ALLARD, Francis (Indiana University of Pennsylvania, USA)
Exotic prestige goods and emergent social complexity in South China: Challenging the model of culture change
Panel: Inter-regional interaction in East Asian Prehistory and History (Francis ALLARD)

Models of culture change associated with inter-regional interaction often propose that some of the products and ideas that make up such interaction provide opportunities for the emergence of regional socio-political hierarchies, with regional leaders taking control of the channels of contact or of the local manufacture and redistribution of its most desirable elements. However, a consideration of the movement and copying of exotic goods in south Chinese prehistory indicates that access to such goods was typically not associated with the growth of stable complex systems.

AN, Jiayuan (National Museum of China, China)
A Study Faunal Remains from the Shangcheng Site
Panel: Methods and Issues in the Zooarchaeology of East Asia (YUAN Jing, Richard H. MEADOW)

Shangcheng Site is situated in Yuanqu County of Shanxi province, was excavated in 1986– 2003. Shangcheng site dated to Late Yangshao Culture ,Late Erlitou Culture, Early Erligang Culture , Late Erligang Culture and Song Dynasty ,from which a number of faunal remains were recovered. This paper is a summary of the analyzing these faunal materials. The presence of animal remains provide us with information of past environment and human behaviors, especial some changes in different historical period, as well as in societal structure of this area.
安家瑗 (中国国家博物馆 )
山西垣曲商城出土动物骨骼的研究
1986年——2003年,中国国家博物馆考古部对山西垣曲商城遗址进行发掘,此遗址包含了的仰韶晚期、二里头晚期、二里岗下层、二里岗上层、宋代共五个时代的文化遗存。这几个文化遗存中都出土了大量的动物骨骼。这些动物都有明确的出土层位、单位和编号,通过对这些骨骼的种属鉴定和定量分析,去研究这一地区古代居民在这五个时期中,所面临的自然环境、人们生产生活的各种信息以及社会结构的变化。

ARIF, Johan (Department of Geology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia)
The Upper third molar fossil of Homo erectus from Sangiran, Central Java, Indonesia
Panel: NN

In the context of Homo erectus fossil find in Indonesia, Sangiran is so far the famous site since there are a plenty of fossils, not only the fossil of early hominid but also other vertebrate fossils, have been discovered from this site. Those fossils were considered mostly come from the Pleistocene deposits.
In May 2005, a new fossilized isolated tooth of Homo erectus was discovered accidentally. It was found on the dry river bed of the Ngrejeng river, surrounding the Ngrejeng village of Sangiran. This new specimen, a well-preserved crown of the left upper third molar; the root is broken off just apical to the cervix, has been provisionally designated as Njg-2005.05.
In comparison of Njg-2005.05 to others upper third molars from similar stratum like Sangiran 17 and Skull IX (Tjg-1993.05), Njg-2005.05 has similar crown dimensions to those specimens. But if the specimens from the older stratum is considered, like Sangiran 4 and Sangiran 27, there is a dimensional difference trend that the more robust trait might exists on the layer below the Grenzbank zone. What is the cause? Whether this trend reflects the existence of evolutionary change or only reflects the sexual dimorphism?

ASTASHENKOVA, Elena (Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia)
Bohai Buddhistic Fine arts in Russian Maritime Region.
Panel: NN

The intensive archeological investigation of the Bohai sites in Russian Maritime Region gave us divers data on the Bohai culture. Articles of the fine arts are very impotent information source about character of Buddhism among Bohai population in Russian Maritime Region.
The stylistic features of Bohai Buddhistic sculpture and plastic art, which were found on the territory of Russian Maritime Region, point out the influence of Tang and Koguryo cultural traditions on them. Certainly, it is conditioned by the history of Bohai. But Bohai Buddhistic Art is not only result of merging the different cultures. Bohai craftsmen created a lot of exceptional ornaments for the tile discs (around eaves-tile), the unique design for the fixing in altar a miniature sculpture s of Buddha.
There are plenty of borrowings in the buddhistic Fine Art of Russian Maritime Region from the buddhistic Fine Art of the capital centers of Bohai, such as Upper Capital, East Capital and etc. The similar stylistic and iconographic elements were found in the material from different buddhistic temples of Russian Maritime Region although they belong to the different districts (Shuaibin and Lunguanfu) in Bohai period. So, Bohai makers from outlying areas orientated on the samples of art products making by their metropolitan colleagues.
Today’s we know only one Buddhistic temple that situated on the territory of ancient walled town (Kraskinskoye). And existence of the temple here conditioned by the status of this site as the capital center of Yanzhou district. For example, there are not any traces of buddhistic temple on the territory of the ancient walled town Gorbatka although its area is a little less than Kraskinskoye ancient walled town . Buddhistic temples which were found on the territory of Russian Maritime Region situated out of the ancient settlements limits. And the articles of the buddhistic fine arts were excavated on the territory of temples only, but not at the dwelling complex. We suppose that Buddhism is not so powerful in the outlying regions of Bohai.

 

B

BAR YOSEF, Ofer (Harvard University, Department of Anthropology, USA)
Emerging complexity: from foragers to farmers in the Yangze River valley
Panel: Comparative Study of Early Complex Societies in East Asia and the World (LI Liu and CHEN Xingcan)

Foragers who exploited wild rice as well as other plants while continuing to hunt, trap and fish, left behind the same archaeological markers that characterize the consumption of vegetal sources and continued hunting by early farmers. Pottery, as known from the entire East Asian records dates to 17-16 Ka cal B.P. and is not the hallmark of the Neolithic, as commonly known from Europe. Pottery appears in the Levantine Neolithic only after at least two millennia of cultivation and the emergence of domesticated plants and animals. If we borrow a tentative model from Western Asia as a toll for interpreting the Late Pleistocene and early Holocene archaeological information from the Yangze River valley, one may expect that intensive foraging strategies practiced by semi-sedentary groups of hunter-gatherers, resulted in the formation of complex social systems. Without resorting to detailed comparisons with either the Natufian culture or the American Northwest Coast societies, one may suspect that early villages, already dated to the first millennia of the Holocene in the eastern Yangze River drainage, especially from the basins of Dongting and Poyang lakes, could represent villages and hamlets of complex societies prior to the emergence of systematic cultivation of rice.

BARUA, Upala (Cotton College, Guwahati India)
The Origin Of Kamakhya Complex. Was It A Buddhist Site?
Panel: NN

Kamakhya temple in the city of Guwahati – popularly known as the Saktipeetha – (centre of strength and power) is perhaps the oldest known Hindu temple complex in the North east of India. Although the temple was reconstructed in the 16th century by the Koch king, yet the original structure could be dated back to 5th century AD. There are also clues that lead one to believe that original structure might be of a Buddhist temple. There are also minor Buddhist temples in and around the kamakhya temple complex. Buddhism spread in this region of India during 5th and 6th century and therefore it is not impossible to believe that the adjoining areas of the temple complex was used as a learning site of Buddhism. The paper presents the prominent Buddhist materials found around the temple complex.

BARUAH, Tiluttoma (Cotton College, India)
The Potters and Pottery of Majuli, Assam in North-East India
Panel: NN

Pottery is a powerful tool for the interpretation of past-present continuum.This is also considerd one of the landmark of the "Neolithic Revolution" alongwith agriculture and a sedentary way of life. In archaeological context,pottery provides some of the most useful data on chronology,site to site relationship,ritual and dietary practices,the economic relationship of production and exchange and many other aspects of cultural behaviour(Choksi 1998).India is a country where 75% of the people are following Hinduism.So here in all religious purposes,the pottery plays a major role.In this paper an attempt has been made to show how the potters of Majuli,Assam of North-East India are still continuing their tradition and how their occupation is helping in Hindues to continue their tradition.

BAUSCH, Ilona (Leiden University, The Netherlands)
Changing Jomon landscape perception and use, from the perspective of jadeite exchange
Panel: Prehistoric Landscape Shifts in the East Asian Inland Seas (UCHIYAMA Junzo, Hideyuki ONISHI, Ilona BAUSCH)
 

BENNET, Gwen (Washington University in St. Louis, USA)
CPAS Project Environmental Archaeology Investigations on the Chengdu Plains: Goals and Findings (with Edwin HAJIC, JIANG Zhanghua, Rowan FLAD, Pochan CHEN, LI Shuicheng)
Panel: Early Complex Societies in the Sichuan Basin and Surrounding Areas (Rowan FLAD)

Sichuan’s Chengdu Plain is a highly active environmental zone with a dynamic fluvial system. While the region’s rivers have been nominally tamed, during prehistory and much of the historic period its water regimen had major impacts on all aspects of settlement in the Plain. In addition to the CPAS Project’s settlement pattern investigations in the Pi Xian Gucheng region of the Plain, it is also doing environmental testing to better understand the nature of the landscape and environment during the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods and its effects on choice of settlement location, the development of water control facilities, and resource acquisition during the Neolithic Baodun and Bronze Age Sanxingdui and Shierqiao periods.

BENNET, Gwen (Washington University in St. Louis, USA)
Archaeology, cultural heritage and identity in North China
Panel: The past in contemporary China: new directions and challenges (Luisa MENGONI and Magnus FISKESJÖ)

This paper examines how archaeological and historical artefacts are exhibited and interpreted by museums, site museums, and monuments in North China to educate the public on regional and national prehistory and history, to construct regional identities, to promote tourism, and to further policy aims. A selection of examples from North China will be compared and contrasted.

BETTINGER, Robert L. (University of California at Davis, USA)
The Paleolithic Record At Dadiwan, Eastern Longxi Basin, Gansu (with Loukas BARTON, Christopher T. MORGAN, CHEN Fahu, ZHANG Dongju, JI Duxue )
Panel: Palaeolithic Archaeology of East Asia (SHEN Chen and Gao XING)

Recent excavations at the Dadiwan site in the eastern Longxi Basin, Gansu, produced a stratified record of human activity from ca. 60,000 B.P. to 5000 B.P. Dated by OSL and radiocarbon, the 8.5 m Dadiwan section contains matching cultural and environmental records that speak to the appearance of anatomically modern humans, hominid biogeography during the LGM, the spread of the North China microlithic, and ultimately the transition to agriculture. Regional site surveys suggest that for most of this time settlement-subsistence systems were centered in the Longxi uplands surrounding Dadiwan, itself a minor settlement until after the LGM.

BETTS, Alison (University of Sydney, Australia)
External influences on the bronze age of the Zhunge’er Basin, Xinjiang
Panel: Comparative Study of Early Complex Societies in East Asia and the World (LI Liu and CHEN Xingcan)

This paper will present a review of the later prehistory of the Zhunge’er Basin in north-western China. It is clear from an extremely wide variety of evidence including metals, fabrics, botanical and faunal data, burial customs, physical anthropology and linguistic analysis, that in later prehistoric times Xinjiang was greatly influenced from external sources, either through cultural diffusion or through direct migration. The paper will discuss the evidence for such influence in the Bronze Age of the Zhunge’er Basin. A certain amount came from contact with the east, but by far the greatest impact came from the west, most particularly from the Altai region and the Eurasian steppes.

BORELL, Brigitte (Germany)
The glass vessels from Guangxi Province
Panel: The contribution of glass study to East Asian archaeology (James LANKTON, Phyllis LIN)

The glass vessels – mainly small moulded cups and shallow bowls – were found in tombs dating from the Western and Eastern Han periods. In the past some of them have been considered as western imports, however, the details of their shapes reveal them as locally made, and they can now be recognised as a well-established group of glass vessels manufactured in southern China. According to the published analyses, a low-CaO potash glass was used, possibly imported as raw glass from farther south. In addition, a proposal is made for the identification of a find from Arikamedu as belonging to this group of glass vessels, thus providing additional evidence for maritime long-distance connections in this period.

BORUTSKAYA ,Svetlana*, VESILYEV, Sergey V.**, GERASIMOVA, Margarita K.** (* Department of Anthropology, Moscow State University; **Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Human skeletal materials from the Neolithic-Aeneolithic burial ground of Fofonovo in the lower reaches of the Selenga (Zanbaikal).
Panel: Bioarchaeological research in East Asia (Ekaterina PECHENKINA)

Morphological characteristics of skulls from the Fofonovo burial ground excavated by Okladnikov and Gerasimov and analyzed by Denets (1948), Gochman (1954), and Gerasimova (1992), have been discussed in the literature numerous times in connection with the hypothesis of population interbreeding. Current analysis was stimulated by new radiocarbon dates for this burial ground and an increase in the size of the cranial series. In this paper we discuss the biological distances of the Fofonavo people from other Neolithic and Aeneolithic populations of Asia, as well as reconstruct patterns of physical activity and other aspects of human lifestyle in this ancient community.
(This study has been completed with financial support from the Program of Fundamental Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences Программы: "Adaptations of peoples and cultures to environmental changes, social and technological transformations".)

BRANTINGHAM, P. Jeffrey (Department of Anthropology, UCLA, USA)
The Late Colonization of the Tibetan Plateau: New Evidence from Qinghai Provence, China
Panel: Palaeolithic Archaeology of East Asia (SHEN Chen and Gao XING)

Human foraging populations ventured into extreme high elevation environments of the northern Tibetan Plateau much later than previously thought. At present there is little evidence for occupations older than approximately 15,000 BP, reflecting a combination of environmental barriers and a lack of population pressures in lower elevation environments that would drive dispersal. Populations are present on the margins of the northern Plateau in greater numbers during the terminal Pleistocene, 15,000-12,000 BP, but sites appear to represent short-term, seasonal occupations. Permanent occupations may have been established only during the early Holocene, 11,000-8200 BP, suggesting that competition with early agriculturalists may have pushed foragers onto the northern Plateau. New archaeological evidence from Qinghai Province is reviewed in support of these hypotheses.

BYINGTON, Mark (Korea Institute, Harvard University, USA)
Characteristics and Context of Puyo Mortuary Practice in Northeastern China
Panel: Funerary Systems in Northeast Asia: The Formation and Development of Regional Cultures (Ariane PERRIN)

This paper involves a discussion and analysis of the mortuary practices of Puyŏ (Fuyu) in central Jilin Province, China. The research includes diachronic analysis of burial and ritual practice and tomb structure associated with Puyŏ and its antecedents in the Songhua River basin, and comparison with the surrounding regions. Goals will be to summarize current knowledge of Puyŏ mortuary characteristics and discussion of how long- and short-distance cultural exchanges may have influenced social change as reflected in burial practices.

C

CAMERON, Judith Anne (Australian National University, Australia)
Xianrendong and the Origins of Spinning and Weaving in South China
Panel: NN

Excavations of Neolithic sites in China have produced large numbers of tools associated with spinning and weaving and yet the origins of textile technology remains unclear.  This paper puts forward the hypothesis that there were two independent origin centres for textile technology in North and South China.  By focusing on tools, the paper aims to show the independent development of spinning and weaving  amongst early rice groups at Xianrendong in the Middle Yangzi and the gradual movement of the technology into Taiwan and other parts of Southeast Asia during the late prehistoric period.

CAMPBELL, Roderick Bruce (New York University, USA)
Shang Sources of Power: Towards a Networks and Boundaries Approach to Early Complex Polities
Panel: New Insights into the archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age (Lothar von FALKENHAUSEN and Xu HONG)

Despite the current consensus concerning the desirability of a shift away from typological debate and toward the functioning of early polities, the current debates over the presence, absence and ubiquity of city-states versus territorial states returns the focus to classification. Based on a critical reformulation of Mann¡¯s work on networks of social power, I propose a ¡°networks and boundaries¡± approach to investigating early complex polities illustrated with the example of Shang China. I will show how this approach resolves debates concerning the nature of the Shang polity with a more nuanced understanding of its practical, material and discursive networks.

CARLSON, Roy L. (Department of Achaeology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., Canada, Canada)
Northeast Asia and the Northwest Coast of North America
Panel: Comparative Study of Early Complex Societies in East Asia and the World (LI Liu and CHEN Xingcan)

In 1923 A.L. Kroeber wrote in contemplating the prehistory of the Northwest Coast of North America  that pre-Columbian American culture could be divided into four groups: 1 elements brought by the original inhabitants; 2. widespread elements developed on American soil;  3. elements developed and remaining local; and 4. elements introduced from Asia. Kroeber used ethnological elements such as woven hats and armour in applying this model. Today  we have an 11,500 year long cultural chronology for the Northwest Coast  stretching from the late Pleistocene through the Holocene, and an even longer chronology for east Asia. In this paper I use Kroeber's model, but apply it to archaeological data in the attempt to estimate the degree and kind of  Asiatic influence  on pre-contact Northwest Coast cultures.

CHANG, Nigel (School of Arts and Social Sciences, James Cook University, Australia)
Personal Ornaments in Prehistoric Thailand and Their Wider Context: are ideas or people moving from China into Southeast Asia with the appearance of farming and again at the beginning of the Southeast Asian Bronze Age
Panel: NN

There appears to be a loose, but not unanimous, consesus amongst archaeologists that rice farming was first developed in southern China and that one of its consequences was a growing population that, in turn, was eventually responsible for the introduction of an agricultural lifestyle into Southeast Asia. This paper investigates this hypothesis by examining the personal ornaments associated with East and Southeast Asian archaeology from about 5000 BC. Are forms, styles and methods of use such that a similar culture is represented across the region? How well does the personal ornament evidence relate to other cultural markers, for example pottery styles and mortuary rituals? I also identify the beginning of the Bronze Age in Southeast Asia as a second period requiring investigation. Specific personal ornaments clearly link East and Southeast Asia cultures at the same time that metal working technologies are becoming apparent in Southeast Asia. Again, are we seeing the movement of people or of ideas?

CHANTHOURN, Thuy (Archaeology, Royal Academy of Cambodia, Cambodia)
Circular Earthwork Sites in Eastern of the Mekong River
Panel: NN

The circular earthwork sites are found on the plateau of the basaltic red soil to the east of the Mekong River in between Cambodia and southwestern Vietnam , where the basal red soil starts in Dalat , Vietnam and Ratanakiry , Cambodia is protruding to the south. According to the fertility of the red soil tropical regions, many types of plants grow very well in the Circular Earthwork sites in these areas. The project was conducted in order to document of circular earthwork sites and its culture which was spread throughout the region east of the Mekong River . The sites are characterised by a circular wall - inside the wall is a ditch then there is a circle inner platform, which used to be the settlements area. The sites are usually more than 200 meters in diameter. With this research present 28 sites in Vietnam and 34 sites in Cambodia . In total 62 circular earthworks sites have been documented to date in the region Cambodia and Vietnam . Several sites have been seriously damaged, because of the ignorance of this most important archaeological site in Southeast Asia . Although these sites are endangered there is a need to document them and then submit a proposal to the appropriate authorities for conservation. The rich prehistoric settlements associated with lithic tools and port shards at the sites can provide valuable data on pertinent archaeological and anthropological issues. The aim is to document them for future comparative study between circular earthwork sites in Cambodia and Vietnam with circle sites in Thailand to determine the nature of the socio-political dynamic during the period at these sites.)

CHEN Chun (Fudan University, China)
Lithic Analysis of the Xiaonanhai Assemblage Unearthed in 1978 (with An Jiayuan, Chen Hong)
Panel: Palaeolithic Archaeology of East Asia (SHEN Chen and Gao XING)

This is a research of the lithic assemblage unearthed from the Xiaonanhai Cave site in 1978 by the late An Zhiming at Anyang County, Henan Province, in combination with the first excavation reported in 1965. The article points out that poor quality raw materials played a major constrains to the lithic industry from the Xiaonanhai. Highly developed fissure within chert caused lithc artifacts small in size. Hard hammer direct percussion is a dominant approach. Biploar technique is commonly used as well, which might have been employed to deal with small poor quality raw materials. Secondary retouch is simple and rough, and a few tool types could be classified. Most are probably debitage or discarded blanks. Usewear analysis shows that most were used to process soft materials. Due to the habitat characterized by an environment similar to tropic forest, expedient technology might have attributed to abundant and poor raw materials, affluent and diverse food resources. The article argues that the Xiaonanhai industry might not be traditionally related with the industry of Loc.1 at Zhoukoudian as previously thought; instead it might have represented a specific adaptation to local environment. In terms of current situation and development of Paleolithic archaeology, unilinear model is no longer relevant to explain the Paleolithic development in North China.

CHEN Maa-ling (Department of Anthropology, National Taiwan University, China)
NN
Panel: Some New Practices in Taiwanese Archaeological Research (Maaling CHEN and Pochan CHEN)

CHEN Pei-Yu (NTU, Department of Anthropology, China)
Evaluation of a Ceramic Analysis Unit, Vessel Lot versus Sherd—A Case Study on the Production and Standardization of Pottery from the She-kow Site
Panel: Some New Practices in Taiwanese Archaeological Research (Maaling CHEN and Pochan CHEN)

In archaeological studies, "vessel lot" and "sherd" both refer to pottery. Although pottery is often excavated from archaeological sites in the form of sherds, the unit that people cognize and use is "vessel lot" rather than "sherd." Moreover, some attributes such as typology, diameter, and height will also be missed if sherd is used as the analytic unit. Aware of this shortcoming, Chilton (1994) advocated taking the vessel lot as an analytic unit to deal with archaeological subjects. Following this concept, two questions are addressed in this paper: (1) Can the vessel lot be correctly constructed by attribute analysis? (2) Will it be more efficient to take the vessel lot rather than the sherd as a unit to discuss archeological topics? To answer these two questions, ceramic data from She-Kou site were taken as an example. For the first question, cluster analysis is used to reconstruct the vessel lots. For the second one, a standardization issue is used as an example to examine whether the use of "sherd" and "vessel" unit would lead to any difference. By evaluating the efficiency of the vessel lot unit, it is believed that the result is good enough to encourage archaeologists to classify potsherds into vessel lots and then use it as the analytic unit in archaeological research.

CHEN Pochan (Department of Anthropology, National Taiwan University, China)
Understanding Chu from the perspectives of world-systems theory
Panel: Early Complex Societies in the Sichuan Basin and Surrounding Areas (Rowan FLAD)

The expansion of Chu is an important issue in Eastern Zhou archaeology. However, “Chu” has become a very vague term although it is treated as an entity with clear boundaries by many scholars. In this paper, with a refined framework from the world-systems theory, I will examine Chu from political, economic, ideological and military perspectives according to ancient texts and newly discovered archaeological materials. I believe that these four spheres are inconsistent and we should have a finer framework to explore regional interactions in Bronze Age Chinese archaeology.

CHENG, Xuexiang (Archaeology Department, Shandong University, China)
Analysis of Floatation Results from the Daxinzhuang Site, Jinan, Shandong, China
Panel: New data and issues of archaeobotany in East Asia (Gary CRAWFORD, Hiroki OBATA, Zhijun ZHAO)

In this research, about 200 floatation samples from the Daxinzhuang site of the Shang period were examined, representing a food complex deriving from plants, which included foxtail and broomcorn millets, rice, wheat, soybean, as well as other plants. Statistics Analysis of different phases and context variation analysis at the site were conducted to look for certain patterns which might have involved local agricultural and political changes.

CHENG, Bonnie (USA)
Pre-or Post-Reform? Change in Early Northern Wei Tombs
Panel: Funerary Systems in Northeast Asia: The Formation and Development of Regional Cultures (Ariane PERRIN)

My paper will examine fifth-century tombs in Shanxi to consider the extent to which settlement in this region transformed burial practices.  Recent excavations of tombs pre-dating and during the Taihe era (477-99 CE) near Datong suggest that the Tuoba-Xianbei adopted Han-style traditions prior to Emperor Xiaowen’s wide-scale reforms.  Can we identify what elements were retained from early nomadic trends and which were newly borrowed?  Is it productive to consider them within a dichotomy of Xianbei and Han, or can we consider them within an analytical framework that foregrounds change as an inevitable product of regional shifts and cultural interaction?

CHERNYKH, Evgeniji (Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Eurasian metallurgy and society
Panel: Eurasian metallurgy and society (ZHANG Liangren)

This paper discusses an eastern type of metallurgy in ancient Eurasia. It arose later than but independently of the western one. The Seima-Turbino metallurgy was the first impressive manifestation of this type, and its main course of influence was directed to the west. The later manifestation of this type, the Karasuk metallurgy, which dates to the second half of the second million BC, was oriented to the east – to Chinese cultures. A gigantic Eurasian «steppe belt» was formed from the Northern Black Sea in the west to Manchzhuria in the east during this millennium, and served as a bridge between the two types of metallurgy.

CHIA Stephen (Centre For Archaeological Research Malaysia, University Sains, Malaysia)
Prehistoric Sites and Research in Semporna, Sabah, Malaysia
Panel: Prehistoric Archaeology of South China and Southeast Asia (FU Xianguo, LU Lie Dan, LI Guo)

This paper presents an overview of prehistoric sites and research carried out in Semporna, Southeastern Sabah (Borneo), Malaysia. Archaeological research in this region of island Southeast Asia has discovered several interesting prehistoric sites and yielded findings and results related to the archaeology of Southeast Asia, Melanesia and Southern China. Archaeological excavations conducted at some of the sites such as Bukit Tengkorak, Melanta Tutup and Bukit Kamiri have extended the presence of ancient human habitation in the Semporna region back as early as the late Palaeolithic period to the Neolithic, Metal and early historical periods. Radiocarbon dating placed some of these sites to date more than 10,000 BP to 800 BP. Also discovered were several burial sites and log coffins from the late prehistoric period (Neolithic, Metal and Early historical periods), radiocarbon dated between 3,000 BP and 800 BP as well as considerable amount of archaeological artefacts such as earthenware pottery, microliths, flake tools, stone adzes, animal and fish bones, beads, metal tools, shell and stone ornaments

CHILDS-JOHNSON, Elizabeth (Old Dominion University, USA)
The Jade Age Question Redefined
Panel: Jade Age Jades and Jade Age Material Sources (Elizabeth CHILDS-JOHNSON)

As related in the publication,  The Chinese Jade  Age:  Early Chinese Jades in American Museums, Beijing: Science Press, in press, 2007 [Chinese and English] and related earlier publications, China appears to have undergone a major phase of growth stimulated by the exploitation of jade. Archaeological data from three major jade-working cultures, including the Hongshan, Liangzhu, and Longshan serve as evidence that the latter three by comparison to others of the Late Neolithic figure as the most innovative cultures responsible for stimulating civilization in early China.  Factors characterizing jade sources and jade art works from these three are examined in light of what they signify culturally about the rise of civilization in early China.

CHIOU-PENG, TzeHuey (Spurlock Museum, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, USA)
Bronze Age Yunnan and Jinsha Corridor
Panel: Early Complex Societies in the Sichuan Basin and Surrounding Areas (Rowan FLAD)

This work address issues regarding interactions between Yunnan and its surrounding regions during the Bronze Age. An analysis of current archaeological materials from southwest China attest that distinct traits originating from areas near the Jinsha River played important roles in the making of Yunnan bronze industry, which flourished during the second half of the 1st millennium BCE. The arrival of foreign ideas in Yunnan could be attributed to population movements as well as short-range contacts among different cultural groups. Ecological changes and historical events occurring in and around the Jinsha River possibly were also among the factors to have induced interactions.
云南青铜文化与金沙走廊的关系
邱茲惠
此文探讨青铜时期云南与周边文化的交流。云南青铜文化在战国以前便已有相当程度的发展,其后发扬光大并持续到至两汉之际。目前的考古信息显示金沙江流域各地的文化对云南青铜文化的发展过程有相当的影响力。金沙江邻近地区的人口迁移及族群之间的交往均为提升云南文化发展的动力,而周边地区生态环境的变化及其间所发生的史迹亦为促成交流的因素.

CHIU Hung-Lin (Graduate School of Kyūshū University, Japan)
Reconstructing prehistoric Taiwan Iron-Age post-marital residential practice in Shiqiao site, Tainan
Panel: Some New Practices in Taiwanese Archaeological Research (Maaling CHEN and Pochan CHEN)

This paper attempts to reconstruct kin relations among the skeletal remains excavated from Taiwanese Iron Age site of Shiqiao by examining their dental metric data. The method developed by Yoshiyuki Tanaka and Naomi Doi in 1986, uses tooth crown measurements as a sensitive indicator of genetic inheritance and allows to detect the existence of kin relations closer than cousins. By combining the outcomes of the application of this method with archaeological methods of mortuary analysis, we can reasonably hope that the social organization of past societies can be reconstructed. The author reports some outcomes of the application of this combined framework to the analysis of the above-mentioned skeletal and mortuary data.

CHU WhuiLee (Anthropology Department, National Museum of Natural Science, Taiwan)
The application of Public Archaeology in Taiwan: A case study of Hui-Lai site
Panel: Public archaeology in the present and recent past in East Asia (Tim SCHADLA-HALL and Akira MATSUDA)

The practice of the conservation of archaeological sites has been quite successful for only two to three decades in the UK, nevertheless many aspects of these practices are worthy of emulation by Taiwan. This paper attempts to utilize the framework of the UK with respect to the arrangement and conservation of archaeological sites as a contrast to the relevant legislation and practices in Taiwan. One case study is drawn from central Taiwan, i.e., the Hui-Lai site. Various archaeological problems that appear in Taiwan are addressed, and, better ways of conservation and management of archaeological sites in Taiwan are proposed. In the following, the researcher summarizes several major problems confronting the management and conservation of archaeological sites in Taiwan, then some possible and feasible suggestions to solve the problems in the near future are discussed.

CRAWFORD, Gary (Department of Anthropology,University of Toronto, Canada)
Changing Views of the Meaning of Agriculture: Implications for Palaeoethnobotany
Panel: New data and issues of archaeobotany in East Asia (Gary CRAWFORD, Hiroki OBATA, Zhijun ZHAO)

The interpretive context of palaeoethnobotany is impacted by the conceptualization of categories such as ¡°hunting and gathering¡± and ¡°agriculture.¡± Ethnographically documented hunting and gathering cultures are not necessarily representative of all hunters and gatherers. Common views of agriculture are bound to narrow definitions influenced by Eurocentric and Sino-centric perspectives of geometric fields of wheat, rice and other modern crops. This paper examines the Jomon in northeastern Japan to illustrate that removing such definitional constraints and interpreting plant remains in terms of broader human ecological principals is a more productive line of inquiry.

CORMACK, Julie (Mount Royal College, Canada)
The end of the Line begins here: Zhoukoudian
Panel: NN

Quartz artefacts (chopping tools and flakes) were first recognized at Zhoukoudian by Johann Gunnar Andersson in the early 1920s.  But it was not until ten years later when Pei Wenzhong and Henri Breuil systematically described and published on a variety of implements from the Locality 1 deposits.  Stratigraphic analysis isolated three cultural zones (A, B, C).  Davidson Black et al. (1933:131) recognized the lack of bifacial implements and concluded that, "No bifaces have so far been observed."  This paper will review the historic influence of the Locality 1 lithic industry in the creation of the Movius Line.

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DAI Xiangming (National Museum of China, China)
Settlemnt Patterns from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age: A Comparison between the Yuanqun and Yuncheng Basin
Panel: New Insights into the archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age (Lothar von FALKENHAUSEN and Xu HONG)

From 2000 to 2002, we conducted the field survey of settlement archaeology in the Yuanqu Basin, southern Shanxi Province, and the result has been published. From 2003 to 2006, we carried out the full-coverage survey in the eastern Yuncheng Basin, a larger one and next to the Yuanqu. The settlement patterns for different periods from the Neolithic to the early Bronze Age display both similarities and differences between the two basins. The comparison between the  two basins will be very interesting and important, which will enable us to look clearly at the different and meanwhile similar processes of social complexity both in a small area and a larger region, and have a better understanding for the appearance of civilization and early states in the Central Plain region

D'ALPOIM GUEDES, Jade (Harvard University, Department of Anthropology, USA)
The ideology of secondary and collective burial: a case study of the Dashimu of Southwestern China
Panel: Early Complex Societies in the Sichuan Basin and Surrounding Areas (Rowan FLAD)

The Dashimu of the Anninghe river valley provide unique examples of secondary and collective burial. Previous studies of these tombs explored their ethnic attribution or the external contacts manifested in their cultural material. To date, none have sought to use the tomb itself as a source of information for understanding the society of their builders. This paper examines the ideology behind this form of burial by means of analogy with contemporary and archaeological examples. This paper also addresses how a more detailed recording of the context and osteological information in these tombs could improve our understanding of the Dashimu society.

DANG, Son Hong (Vietnam)
Architectural materials from Ly Cung, Ho Citadel, Nam Giao sites (Northern Vietnam)
Panel: Vietnamese Archaeology (Le Lien THI)

A large number of architectural materials have been unearthed from Ly Cung, Ho Citadel and Nam Giao sites (Thanh Hoa province), which are now preserved in several museums and private houses. By studying these sources, in comparison with historical records, the author focuses on the following aspects:
- Establishing the general canons and categories for typology, chronology and origin of architectural materials from these sites.
- Studying the art of decoration and its development.
- Comparative studying on the materials of these sites in broader context in order to recognize the social structure of Great Viet society and of Tran Dynasty in particular.

DASHTSEVEG, Tumen co-authored with VANCHIGDASH, Ch. (Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, National University of Mongolia, Mongolia)
Physical Characteristics of Archaeological Populations of Mongolia
Panel: Bioarchaeological research in East Asia (Ekaterina PECHENKINA)

In the article we have given main results of comparative study of physical stature and physiques of ancient nomads from different historical periods (from Neolithic up to Mongolian Period) of Mongolia. The study shows some difference in body constitution of studied archaeological populations from Mongolia. Differences between archaeological populations were found in shoulder width, torso length, arm and leg length. It was shown that during the historical periods (from Neolithic up to modern era) shoulder width and torso length decreased and in contrary the arm and leg length increased significantly. The interesting phenomenon in physique of Mongolian archaeological populations may show its secular trends observed in some archaeological populations from different regions of the world.

DATTA, Asok (Department of Archaeology University of Calcutta India)
Discovery of a Pre-Pala Monastic complex at Moghalmari, Dantan, West- Midnapur, West-Bengal by the Department of Archaeology, University of Calcutta.
Panel: NN

The Department of Archaeology, University of Calcutta under the direction of Dr. Asok Datta and assisted by other faculty members, Ph.D students and technical staffs resumed the excavation at Moghalmari since 15th Feb. 2007. The excavation has so far revealed the existence of the Pre-Pala (possibly seventh/eighth century A.D. ) Buddhist monastic complex (es) with extensive stucco and / or lime decoration on the eastern part of the mound. These exquisite decorative elements in stucco / lime are unique in eastern India. Embellishments on the frontal wall the temple in particular and the monastic establishment(s) in general will definitely throw new light not only on the early medieval history of western Midnapur, but also on that of entire West- Bengal. The Buddhistic character of the monastery is further supported by the discovery of a stone sculpture from stratified context representing the Buddha in the well known bhumisparshamudra. The discovery of the Mogalmari monastic complex (es) is unquestionably comparable to those discovered at Nalanda (South Bihar), Raktamrittika (Chhiruti, Murshidabad) and Nandadirgghika (Jagajibanpur, Malda)
The earlier of excavation in 2003- 04 at the same site had revealed the existence of terracotta stupa bases and clear indication of the alignments of a huge monastic complex. The monastic complex is dated on the basis of a terracotta inscription in Post – Gupta Brahmi character of c. early 6th- 7th century A.D. (found earlier), stucco / lime decoration which is definitely Pre – Pala character and the Buddhist stone image. Special mention may be made of an inscribed terracotta seal matrix having multiple impressions recording some personal names, the characters of which can fairly be dated to the seventh century A.D.
The excavation further reveals series of cells attached to the outer wall of the monastery in the western part of the mound and the temple complex to the eastern part of the mound. Besides, the excavation has also yielded terracotta lamps, iron nails as well as a commendable variety of ceramics including red, buff and different shades of grey wares. The structure possibly represents the largest monastic complex in West – Bengal.
The Dantan monastic complex at Moghalmari was not grown in isolation; it is established from both literary and archaeological evidences that in the past a trade route probably located in the close vicinity of the site connecting Tamralipta with other Buddhist monuments in Orissa beyond Suvarnarekha viz. Jayrampur, Khiching, Baleswar (Lalitgiri) of Orissa or Oddra and Nalanda, Bodhgaya of ancient Magadha. Hence the prosperity of the site (Moghalmari monastic complex) was no doubt due to its location on the above noted trade routes dating back to the fifth/sixth century AD onwards. The present paper attempts to present a comprehensive picture of the pre-pala monastic complex (es) as revealed through recent excavation.

DATTA, Sm Rita (India)
Cultural Heritage and Computer Technology – A case study of Bishnupur Temples, West-Bengal, India
Panel: NN

 Preservation of its cultural heritage is a primary duty of every nation, but it did not happen always mainly due to lack of resources on the one hand and technical know-how on the other. Here, computer technology, which is one of the scientific methods of documentation, can be utilized for this purpose since it is less expensive, but more realistic in approach. It can help to create a data base for future preservation, research and transmitting the knowledge through internet to distant countries. Moreover, one can study the materials without visiting the site physically, which is a great advantage. India is vast country with diverse climatic and ethnic groups. In a country like India, computer technology can be of great help for the preservation of its cultural heritages.
      Bishnupur, in West-Bengal, is a land of terracotta temples being characterized by different forms, styles and techniques. There are 32 terracotta temples, which can broadly be classified in to Deul, Chala and Ratna types which evolved in Bengal. The significant feature of these temples is the decorations of outer walls with beautiful terracotta plaques displaying the socio-economic-religious as well seafaring activities of the people of Bengal in late medieval period. The constructions of all these temples belong to 16th to 18th century AD. Of the 32 temples, only few of them are under (ASI) government protection while majority of them are now in dilapidated conditions and are likely to be disappeared unless they are covered under protection. Both natural and human agencies are equally responsible for this condition. Here, computer documentation both by digital photography and videography are of immense importance since it can help for its future preservation as well drawing attention of the appropriate authority like UNO for its physical protection.
     The present paper attempts to highlight the cultural heritage of Bishnupur and measures for its future protection through computer technology.   

DEMATTÈ, Paola (Rhode Island School of Design, USA)
The origins of Chinese writing: signs and symbols in archaeological context
Panel: NN

Late Neolithic and early Bronze Age (ca. 3500-2000 bce) signs from Chinese contexts suggest that signing activities were well developed before full blown writing became widespread during the Shang period.  In addition, archaeological evidence indicates that mature writing evolved from these earlier signing systems as a result of the increasing social and political complexity of the societies of the Late Neolithic. This paper will analyze as number of early signing systems which may have led to the mature Chinese writing of the Shang oracle bone inscriptions, and will argue that non-linguistic visual signing (from pot-marks to pottery decorations or rock art) play a role in the development of writing systems.

DENG, Fei (Oriental Institute, University of Oxford, UK)
Representation of Offering, Representation for Offering: A Study of Decorative Themes in Song Tombs
Panel: Mortuary analysis in Chinese Archaeology (Guolong LAI)

This paper discusses a group of Song tombs in present-day Henan and Shanxi in order to understand the roles of tomb decoration during the period. By associating pictorial scenes in tombs with murals of local temples, I argue that similar decorative themes were applied by both tombs and temples, notably food preparation and theatrical performance. These themes may have taken their subjects from actual local rites or death rituals, and may also have been thought of as offerings made to deities or the deceased. This paper reveals the ways in which Song people employed images as special tools to nourish the dead in perpetuity. The use of representations could be interpreted as a common mode of devising and presenting ritual in the period.
本文通过分析一系列河南山西地区的宋代壁画墓来探讨此时期墓葬装饰的意义。通过联系比较墓葬装饰与民间寺庙壁画,我认为墓葬与寺庙在某种程度上使用了相似的装饰题材,比如备食图或杂剧表演。这些题材可能取材于民间礼仪或丧葬仪式,也同时为死者或是神灵提供了祭祀。本文将说明宋人如何以图象为特殊手段来为死者提供永恒的物质和礼仪。这种对图象的使用也似乎可以被视为一种当时思考和呈现礼仪的方式。
 

DENNELL, Robin (University of Sheffield, UK)
The Climatic and Regional Background to Modern Humans In East Asia
Panel: Palaeolithic Archaeology of East Asia (SHEN Chen and Gao XING)

This paper considers the fossil hominin, climatic and regional background to the origin of modern humans in China and other regions of Asia. It suggests that there is much confusion over the use of the term “archaic Homo sapiens” in both Africa and China: confusion exists because neither the African nor Chinese “archaic Homo sapiens” specimens are homogenous, and because there are differences between the “archaic Homo sapiens” in both regions. Although modern humans can be identified in East Africa by 160 ka, and Southwest Asia by ca. 130 ka, there is little precise information of how they may have dispersed across Asia. Insufficient attention is paid to the probability that Neanderthals also expanded their range into Southwest and Central Asia at the same time that modern humans may have been expanding across South Asia. The critical period that requires much more information is during oxygen isotope stage (OIS 3), ca. 60-20 ka, when the main recolonisation of Asia took place.

DOAR, Bruce Gordon (School of Asia and Pacific Studies, ANU, Australia)
Universals and uniqueness in Chinese archaeology and heritage
Panel: The past in contemporary China: new directions and challenges (Luisa MENGONI and Magnus FISKESJÖ)

Chinese archaeology and cultural heritage endeavors are often criticised by their detractors for being at the service of a narrow nationalism. Beyond the political dimension of this debate there is the need for all participants to clearly acknowledge what is universal and what is unique in both China's archaeological record and cultural heritage. One identifiably unique aspect of Chinese culture – its written language – has been used as an indicator of 'civilisation', at the same time as early texts in its script have been generated by an ongoing sense of 'archaeology' within the culture and an ancient notion of temporal 'development' that encompassed continuous cultural descent, rather than ascent, from an archaic age of sage-kings. China's intellectual path from antiquity to feudalism could only be redirected by nationalist concerns.

DOBNEY, Keith (Durham University, UK)
Pigs pests and people: Using biomolecular and morphological signatures to explore the origins and spread of early farmers in East Asia
Panel: Methods and Issues in the Zooarchaeology of East Asia (YUAN Jing, Richard H. MEADOW)

The invention and spread of farming was one of the most important events in human history. It is one of the principal keys to understanding human civilization and provides an ideal model to study evolutionary change. Despite decades of research, we still have little idea of what domestication is, why, where or even how it occurred, and how it spread around the globe. This paper focuses upon one of the most iconic domestic animals of many East Asian cultures – the PIG, summarising some of the most recent genetic and morphological evidence for its origins and dispersal into Island South East Asia and Oceania.

DOELMAN, Trudy* coauthored with Robin TORRENCE**, Vladimir POPOV***, Nickolay KLUYEV****, Igor SLEPTSOV****, Irina PANTYUKHINA**** (*Department of Archaeology, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; **Australian Museum, Sydney, Australia; ***Far East Geological Institute, Vladivostok, Russia; ****Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, Vladivostok, Russia)
Square Blocks vs Round Cobbles: The Exploitation of Basaltic Glass from Central Primorye, Far East Russia
Panel: NN

In the Tigrovy area of the Shkotovo Plateau, Central Primorye basaltic glass was procured from the late Paleolithic through to the Paleometal period.  An Australian-Russian interdisciplinary project investigated how raw material was selected, acquired, worked, used and transported across the landscape. Excavations at a significant quarry site and nearby occupation sites show how people used different reduction strategies to work square blocks, obtained from quarries, and rounded cobbles from streams for making bifaces and microblades. Our analyses of the assemblages provide valuable insights into how and why people were creative and flexible in exploiting stone resources.

DONG Chengxi (SOAS, LONDON UK)
Early Museum History in China
Panel: Public archaeology in the present and recent past in East Asia (Tim SCHADLA-HALL and Akira MATSUDA)

Museums as an enlightening cultural institution only emerged during China’s search of modernization, which started at the later half of the nineteenth century. The importance of this period lies in the fact that before it there was no western museum approach in China. The attempts to develop museums at this time were, therefore, part of the wider changing intellectual, political and social climate. This paper will examine early history of museums in China, and the use of museums in China and their public actions in involving people with the past.

DONG Xinlin (Institute of Archaeology, CASC, China)
The stories of the "Twenty-four Paragons of Filial Piety
Panel: Mortuary analysis in Chinese Archaeology (Guolong LAI)

The stories of the "Twenty-four Paragons of Filial Piety" are important decorative motifs often seen in tombs of the Northern Song, Jin, and Yuan dynasties. These mural motifs show strong consistency over a long period in North China . Although they are somewhat different from the extant versions of the stories in such book as Guo Jujing’s All Illustrated Poems on the Twenty-four Paragons of Filial Piety, they are closely related to the Korean version of the Hyphaeng Rok of the Koryŏ period. This indicated that there were at least two versions of the stories of the Twenty-four Paragons of Filial Piety existed in ancient China, and the version in the Hyphaeng Rok are the most popular one circulated in North China during the Northern Song, Jin, and Yuan dynasties. This Hyphaeng Rok version also provides important evidence for the identification of tomb mural motifs.

DOUGLAS, Janet G. (Department of Conservation and Scientific Research, Freer Gallery of Art / Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian, USA)
Materials of Late Neolithic Jades in the Freer and Sackler Collections
Panel: Jade Age Jades and Jade Age Material Sources (Elizabeth CHILDS-JOHNSON)

Jade collections at the Smithsonian's Freer and Sackler Galleries provide an opportunity to study materials from three jade-working cultures active during the late Neolithic period, including Hongshan, Liangzhu and Longshan. Mineralogical characterization of nephrite jades using analytical methods is providing us with some information on the geological source of these materials. All have features suggesting they were manufactured of nephrite from geological environments associated with dolomitic marbles. Many of the jades within each cultural group, however, contain visual and chemical characteristics that suggest they share a common geological origin which is distinct from jades produced by other cultural groups. These issues will be examined in detail.
Stone materials other than nephrite were also used, particularly for axes during the late Neolithic period. Mineralogical composition of these materials will be discussed, although the geological source of these materials has not yet been researched.

DRENNAN, Robert D., PETERSON, Christian E. (University of Pittsburgh, USA)
Changing Community Patterns through Time in the Chifeng Region
Panel: Human Adaptation and Socio-Political Change in Northeast China with a Focus on the Chifeng Region (Gideon SHELACH, ZHANG Zhongpei)

Local communities of people in daily face-to-face interaction and larger supra-local communities are the arenas in which human action and interaction create social change. Regional settlement analysis for Chifeng traces changes in the size, nature, and organization of communities at both scales, from the establishment of the first sedentary local communities, to the emergence of centralized supra-local communities, and on through sharp demographic, but not spatial, growth of these supra-local communities. Subsequent autochthonous qualitative changes in community patterns precede a later round of change occasioned by the incursion into the region of territorial states centered elsewhere.

DRENNAN, Robert D., PETERSON, Christian E. (University of Pittsburgh, USA)
Methods for Archaeological Population Estimation for the Chifeng Region
Panel: Human Adaptation and Socio-Political Change in Northeast China with a Focus on the Chifeng Region (Gideon SHELACH, ZHANG Zhongpei)

Previously published analysis of systematic complete-coverage regional-scale settlement data from the Chifeng region has laid out an approach to making demographic estimates for prehistoric periods. This approach, based on the area and density of ceramics encountered on the surface, builds on a foundation well-established in settlement research in many parts of the world. Additional comparison of surface collection with sub-surface sampling amplifies previous results and advances the effort to establish a basis for converting a relative demographic index into estimates of actual numbers of inhabitants. Analysis of modern village distribution and census data also contributes to this latter effort.

DU Mei-Huei (National University Taiwan, Department of Anthropology, Taiwan, China)
A Study on the Site Formation Process of Saqacengalj, an Abandoned Paiwan Settlement.
Panel: Some New Practices in Taiwanese Archaeological Research (Maaling CHEN and Pochan CHEN)

With the advent of behavioral archaeology in the early 1970s, concepts on the site formation process progressively came to play an important role in the archaeological reconstructions of prehistoric populations. In the past, it was argued that archaeological data are static and can reflect past cultural phenomena directly. However, this kind of perspective was recognized in the 1970s to have serious shortcomings. Particularly, it was found that there are discontinuities between the artifacts created and, deposited by a behavioral system and those that are remaining and are found in an archaeological context. As a result of the impacts of many cultural and natural forces that occur through time, it is not only the degree of archaeological remains’ preservation which could be degraded, but the spatial pattern, frequencies, and morphology of materials could also be transformed or even distorted. However, since the causes and consequences of cultural and noncultural formation processes are regular and predictable, archaeologists can still eliminate the effects of site formation processes. In relation to these, the current paper therefore uses a case study of Saqacengalj, an abandoned settlement of the Southern Paiwan Group in Pin-dong District, Taiwan, to advocate the importance of site formation process research. By analyzing the condition of architectural structure and deposition in the area, and the characteristic and spatial distribution of pot sherds, this study demonstrates that postdepositional disturbances, especially gravitation sliding and floral growth, have strongly transformed the archaeological data of Saqacengalj. This means that unless these transformations can be closely evaluated, the interpretation of archaeological remains in this aboriginal settlement would be highly suspect. In short, site formation processes must be understood and evaluated before the goal of archaeologically reconstructing the past can be realized.

DYAKOVA, Olga (Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of Peoples of the Far East, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia., Russia)
Etnic Structure of Bohai State
Panel: NN

The state of Bohai was polyethnic. Archaeological material permitted the conclusion that indigenous Bohai residents were Mohe (Malgal) tribes. After the fall of Koguryo, a considerable number of Koguryo residents joined the Bohai state, what resulted in Koguryo earthenware having become the cultural marker. Some Koguryo residents acquired the status of crafts-men, particularly potters. The presence of stone fortresses built according to Koguryo traditions shows that Bohai held considerable number of Koguryo soldiers to defend borders. Koguryo residents also occurred within the Bohai’s administrative system. Tungus Manchu population of Bohai adopted some agricultural practices from Koguryo peasants.

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EDWARDS, Walter (Tenri University, Japan)
Cultural Heritage Mismanagement?: Lessons from the Takamatsuzuka Kofun Murals
Panel: A Century of Preserving Archaeological Heritage in East Asia (PAI Hyung II)

The 1972 discovery at Takamatsuzuka kofun of exquisite tomb murals, previously unknown for Japan, triggered a whirlwind effort to ensure these materials’ conservation. The Agency for Cultural Affairs decided the following year to seal the tomb and preserve its murals in situ; the installation of special equipment, designed to maintain appropriate temperature and humidity levels in the chamber, was complete just four years after the discovery. Photographs released in 2004, however, showed that serious damage from mold had disfigured portions of the images beyond recognition, and the Agency hurriedly announced a program to dismantle the tomb for treatment under laboratory conditions. The scale of both the preservation effort and its failure ensure that Takamatsuzuka will have significant impact on future heritage management policy in Japan.

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FALKENHAUSEN, Lothar von (UCLA, USA)
Introductory Remarks
Panel: New Insights into the archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age (Lothar von FALKENHAUSEN and Xu HONG)

 

FAN, Julia (Dept. of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, USA)
Health and Behavioral Change in Ancient Xinjiang (1800 BC-AD 220)
Panel: Bioarchaeological research in East Asia (Ekaterina PECHENKINA)

 

FEI LI Fei Li (Guizhou Provincial Institute of Archaeology, China)
Culture change in Guizhou, from the prehistoric period to the Han dynasty---a focus on Zhongshui sites (coauthor: Li Fei, ZHANG He-rong)
Panel: Early Complex Societies in the Sichuan Basin and Surrounding Areas (Rowan FLAD)

Skeletal remains from Xinjiang can provide unique insights into interactions between Inner Asian nomads and Chinese agriculturalists and the nature of early contact and exchange along the Silk Road. This paper presents preliminary results of analyses of human remains from the archaeological sites of Nileke, Yingpan, and Yanghai in Xinjiang, from the Bronze Age to the Han dynasty (1800 BC to AD 220). Skeletal health indices that integrate data on demography, health, diet, physical activity, and metabolic stress were collected to study the health consequences of increasing political centralization and interregional contact during this time span.

FIELD, Judith (The University of Sydney, Australia)
Identifying Function and Use of Gringing Stones from Archaeological Sites: Recent Studies from Australia and China
Panel: Comparative Study of Early Complex Societies in East Asia and the World (LI Liu and CHEN Xingcan)

Linking the use of particular plant species with the development of certain food processing technologies has been a challenging problem for archaeologists investigating the prehistoric record. In Australia, the development of grass seed grinding was always argued to be a Late Holocene development, though grinding stones have been recovered from a number of Pleistocene contexts. Likewise the permanent settlement of rainforests on this continent has only recently been linked to access to technologies associated with processing of toxic starchy plants. In the Chinese context the range of plants associated with early Holocene use of grinding stones has never clearly been established. In this presentation I will outline recent advances in the use of starch studies in addressing important issues associated with initial exploitation of important economic species in the archaeological record from China and Australia.

FLAD, Rowan Kimon (Co-authors: JIANG Zhanghua, Gwen BENNETT, Pochan CHEN, LI Shuicheng, Lothar von FALKENHAUSEN) (Harvard University, Department of Anthropology, USA)
The Chengdu Plain Archaeology Project – Surveying Rice Paddies in the Search for the Origins of Sanxingdui
Panel: Early Complex Societies in the Sichuan Basin and Surrounding Areas (Rowan FLAD)

Starting in 2005, an international collaborative team established a survey in the Chengdu Plain of Sichuan with the focus on elucidating diachronic patterns of settlement during the late Neolithic and Bronze Ages.   This paper discusses the methods used by the survey project and the results to date.  Surface survey together with systematic augering have identified an increasingly dense settlement landscape over the course of the Bronze Age.  We discuss the potential implications the observed patterns have concerning the social forms that existed in this part of the prehistoric Chengdu Plain.

FREDERICK, Wendy (San Francisco State University, USA)
Archaeology and Ethnicity of the Ainu
Panel: NN

This paper is about the relationship between ethnicity and archaeology in the context of Ainu archaeology. I will attempt to explain and assess the ways in which the Ainu have been perceived in the framework of archaeology. The nationalistic archaeology of Japan has been framed in the nationalistic ideology of Japan. The role of archaeology in the construction and legitimization of collective cultural identities is important in archaeological theory and practice.

FURIHATA Junko (Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties)
Two radiographic techniques for the nondestructive study of glass beads
Panel: The contribution of glass study to East Asian archaeology (James LANKTON, Phyllis LIN)

This paper reports the use of two nondestructive methods, CR (computed radiography) and AR (auto-radiography), for the study of glass beads excavated in Japan. Initially, large numbers of glass beads may be separated into lead glass and alkali glass groups by comparing PSL (photostimulated luminescence) values with density as determined from X-ray images. Further classification of the samples into soda and potash glass is possible by means of autoradiography, depending on the weak radiation from potassium. Using these methods, the authors found that the compositions of glass beads excavated in Japan varied with the time period. In addition, the CR method gave an insight into the production technology for the beads.

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GAO, Xing (Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, CAS, China)
Into the Future of East Asian Palaeolithic
Panel: Palaeolithic Archaeology of East Asia (SHEN Chen and Gao XING)

The presentation will open this panel discussion by an overview of current status of Palaeolithic archaeology in East Asia (China, Japan, Korean, and Russian East Siberia). The progress of field investigations and research in some of key issues related to Palaeolithic technology and human evolution will be outlined. Drawn from cases studies in China, the author will discuss on-going research debates, and to address how future studies in East Asian Palaeolithic beyond today’s political boarders of the nations should be coordinated, with international efforts in bringing a variety of expertise together, to treat East Asia as a broader cultural region that once created the earliest human interaction sphere in its own characters for nearly 2 million years

GELMAN, Evgeniya (Russia)
Subsistence system of Bohai people: archaeological evidences from Russian Maritime region
Panel: NN

For this investigation archaeological evidences were got from several sites. They have different positions in hierarchical administrative system of Bohai State and centre-periphery relations. Comparative study of main parameters of subsistent system of populations from diverse sites. Twelve kinds cultivated plants were found and between them main and auxiliary kinds were revealed. The role domestic and wild animals in economics of Bohai were examined and ratios in every group were ascertained for site from different ecological zones. Sea and river shells had particular importance in daily life of inhabitants of settlements and walled towns. Study of carbonized and wet wooden samples allowed knowing of kinds of trees using by Bohai people for different kind of constructions. Reconstruction of subsistence system expands our knowledge about economics of Bohai in comparison with Chinese chronicles and opens the new prospects in archaeology of Bohai State.

GILLAM, J. Christopher (University of South Carolina,USA)
Modeling Cultural Landscapes: Examples from East Asia and the Americas
Panel: Prehistoric Landscape Shifts in the East Asian Inland Seas (UCHIYAMA Junzo, Hideyuki ONISHI, Ilona BAUSCH)

Advancements in the design and implementation of archaeological databases, geographic information systems (GIS), and cartographic modeling enable archaeologists today to construct empirical models of past cultural landscapes at a variety of scales. The goals of this paper are to explore critical considerations in the resolution and accuracy of archaeological and GIS datasets, to highlight useful environmental GIS datasets distributed freely on the internet, and to discuss techniques for modeling prehistoric cultural landscapes using examples from East Asia and the Americas. These techniques include prediction, caloric cost modeling, least-cost path analyses, and territorial modeling.

GU Fang (Beijing Jadeology and Jade Culture Research Center, China)
Special Characteristics of Qijia Jade Material
Panel: Jade Age Jades and Jade Age Material Sources (Elizabeth CHILDS-JOHNSON)

Based on preliminary analysis and collection of Qijia jades, it is my thesis that due to color and alteration of this jade material, in addition to geological and chemical data, Qijia jade material has several outstanding characteristics that differ from other Late Neolithic jades.   Most Qijia jades are tremolitic, and some are serpentine or sepentine-marble.  Tremolitic types vary in color from indigo-white, indigo, black, and those with brown spots that have been characterized as pudding-stone.  Some of the Qijia jades are from Hetian quarries or mines, suggesting that Qijia served as a middleman for introducing Hetian jade to central China.

GUSEV, Sergey (Research Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage, Russia)
Old Whailing Culture on Chukotka and Alaska
Panel: NN

Archaeological site Unenen near Nunligran village, Western Chukotka, was found in 1997. During 2003 and 2005 excavation seasons more then 4000 artifacts were found, such as knifes, scrapers, drills, arrowheads, wooden cups, toggle harpoons and ritual objects. There is a perfect organic preservation in cultural deposits, which let to collect numerous palaeozoological material, including shells. 9 C14 dates were obtained for the site, in a range from 2990 to 3260.
Exploration of Unenen site (Chukotka, Provideniya distr.) gives an opportunity to take a new look on origin and distribution of Old Whailing culture, which was found out in 1950-60s on Cape Kruzenstern, NW Alaska. According to typological analysis it is possible to suggest cultural and chronological unity of Old Whailing site on Cape Kruzenstern, Unenen site on Chukotka, Chertov Ovrag site on Wrangel Island and some sites to the south from the Gulf of Anadyr and in the low course of the Anadyr river. It’s possible to suggest relatively fast inhabitation of those areas by developed sea mammal hunters specialized on maritime subsistence. This migration was probably caused by climatic changes and new coastal line formation.
An origin of Old Whailing – Unenen tradition still unclear.
I n 2007 new project of Unenen site exploration was started by the Institute of Heritage (Moskow), Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography /Kunstkamera/ (St.-Petersburg) and University of Alaska Fairbanks.

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HAN Jianye (The College of Arts and Sciences of Beijing Union University, China)
Cultures in Xinjiang from the Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age
Panel: New Insights into the archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age (Lothar von FALKENHAUSEN and Xu HONG)

The Prehistoric Cultures in Xinjiang can be divided into three phases: the Bronze Age, the early years of the early Iron Age, and the late phase of the early Iron Age. While Xinjiang showed a keen cultural contact with its neighboring regions in the process of cultural development during the entire Bronze Age and the early Iron Age, the region also managed to have maintained its cultural independence. Despite local cultural variations within the region, the overall tendency is toward cultural homogeneity in this ever more active process of cultural interaction.

HENRY, Donald Owen (University of Tulsa, USA)
Tracing Modern Human Behavioral Organization Through Intrasite Spatial Analysis: An Example from Southwest Asia
Panel: Palaeolithic Archaeology of East Asia (SHEN Chen and Gao XING)

Imbedded within the ongoing debate on the degree to which the behaviors of Archaics and moderns may have differed are the conflicting notions and inferences related to their associated site structures; that is, the spatial and contextual relationships of artifacts, ecofacts, and features. The site structures of Archaics and moderns have been contrasted along several dimensions: cultural versus niche geography, social as opposed to technical intelligence, symbolic versus non-symbolic use of space and complex as opposed to simple activity patterns. Specifically, the proposed dichotomies in site structure shared by the studies center on the spatial distributions and variability of activity areas and hearths. Archaic site structures are thought to display a single central hearth or, more commonly, none at all in conjunction with artifacts and bones pointing to overlapping, superimposed, expedient activities in living areas. Others suggest that Archaic sites, at most, may be simply organized into two zones, living and dumping/heavy duty areas, as a consequence of natural site constraints, noxious odors, and human biomechanics. In contrast to Archaic site structure, the sites of modern foragers are described as displaying numerous, largely non-overlapping, task-specific areas that are often tethered to hearths or other features. Moreover, hearths are likely to include ones positioned in central as well as satellite settings.
A high resolution intrasite study of the 55Kya Levantine Mousterian rockshelter of Tor Faraj (southern Jordan) identified three stratified living floors that displayed 19 hearths. In an effort to better understand the hearths in the context of site structure, a metric-based, hearth pattern analysis was developed from cross-cultural ethnographic data. The study assisted in identifying the synchroneity of the use (firing) of the hearths and in developing a more precise definition of the living floors and the number of discrete occupations for each of the floors. The results of the study indicate that a commonly encountered problem in intrasite studies, the palimpsest problem, can be resolved through a hearth pattern analysis, as presented.
 

HERNANDEZ, Mauricio (City University of New York, USA)
Population height and the quality of nutrition in ancient China
Panel: Bioarchaeological research in East Asia (Ekaterina PECHENKINA)

Average population height generally increases when the quality of life and nutrition improve. In China, the adoption of large-scale cultivation methods and agriculture allowed for more food to be readily available and population size to increase. I examined several sites throughout the Neolithic: the Peiligang culture (9000-7000 BP), Early Yangshao culture (7000-5000 BP), Longshan culture (5000-4000 BP), Erlitou culture (4000-3500 BP), and Han culture (after 2206 BP). Long bone measurements were taken of males and females in order to compare overall population height and infer the quality of nutrition through each period at different sites.

HO Chuan Kuan (with CHU Whei-Lee)(Anthropology Department, National Museum of Natural Science, Taiwan)
The Significance of Hui LAI Site in central Taiwan and The Last Glacial Megafaunas and Paleolithic Hunters in Taiwan
Panel: Some New Practices in Taiwanese Archaeological Research (Maaling CHEN and Pochan CHEN)

Chang Kwang Chi (1969) states that the oldest prehistoric culture in the central area is the Niu Ma Tou culture. The Hui Lai archaeological site discovered is part of the cord-marked pottery culture period in the Taichung basin area. The inhabitants were a mainly agricultural people who fished, hunted, and gathered to supplement their food supply from farming. Most surprisingly, excavation of stone materials were made of nephrites from Hua Lien east coast of Taiwan, indicating that the west coast people either interacted or traded with people on the east coast from 3000 years ago.
In addition to Niu Ma Tou culture, the Hui Lai site also contains rash pits, pile dwellings, animal bones, and 23 prone burials dated to 1300 years BP reveal that the area once was a large village of Iron age in central Taiwan. The cultural remains are distributed near the Fa Zi River area. The inhabitants relied on food sources from the river, it is unfortunate that fishing nets have yet to be found. Raw materials of stone tools and stone hammers were also unearthed. These revealed that tools were made within the village, and the development of the agriculture led to the appearance of the stone knives.

HO Chuan Kuan (Anthropology Department, National Museum of Natural Science, Taiwan)
The Last Glacial Megafaunas and Paleolithic Hunters in Taiwan
Panel: Palaeolithic Archaeology of East Asia (SHEN Chen and Gao XING)

The late Chinese archaeologist Dr. Kwang-Chih Chang once said that, "Although Taiwan is small, it is diversified culturally". In Taiwan, Archaeological studies began more than a century ago, in 1896. Since then, more than 2500 prehistoric sites have been discovered. Among them, those that relate to Taiwan’s Paleolithic sites are few in number, but can be considered as the tip of the iceberg. During Taiwan’s time as a colony of Japan(1895-1945), Japanese scholars hypothesized that Taiwan and Mainland China were linked during the glacial periods. The Paleolithic hunter and gatherers most likely followed the movement of megafaunas southward to the present day Taiwan Strait.
Within the last decade of the 20th century, among the animal fossils dredgred from the Penghu Channel were found human fossils and animal fossils bearing cut marks processed by Paleolithic hunters. Such discoveries will shed new light on the Paleontogical and Paleolithic researches in Taiwan. This paper will reconstruct the lifeways of Taiwan’s early Paleolithic hunters and their Paleoenvironmental settings from the perspective of these new underwater fossil discoveries.

HOSOYA, Leo Aoi (Research Institute for Humanity and Natur, Japan)
Plant food subsistence strategy and the 'routine-scape' in Japanese and Chinese prehistory
Panel: Prehistoric Landscape Shifts in the East Asian Inland Seas (UCHIYAMA Junzo, Hideyuki ONISHI, Ilona BAUSCH)

Tian Luo Shan is a recently discovered Hemede culture site, where analyses of organic remains have been positively carried out. The results have revealed, in spite of the traditional image of ‘rice farmers’ of Hemede culture, that considerable amount of gathered plant food; acorns were used there. In this presentation, the author reconstructs how the gathering-farming strategy was reflected in their space use of the living sphere and their routine activities, based on analyses of spatial distribution of botanical remains and archaeological features such as storage facility.

HUNG Ling-yu (Washington University in St. Louis, USA) (coauthored with CUI Jianfeng (Peking University), CHEN Honghai (Xibei University), WANG Hui (Gansu Archaeological Research Institute), CHEN Jian (Chendu Archaeological Research Institute)
Painted pottery and long distance trade in late Neolithic Northwestern China
Panel: NN

Formal analysis indicates that long-distance trade (over several hundred kilometers), exotic potters, and the unskilled imitation of exotic decoration styles need to be considered for studying painted pottery yielded from the late Neolithic Majiayao, Banshan, and Machang phases (5300–4700 BP, 4700–4350 BP and 4350–4050 BP respectively) in Northwestern China. Were certain painted pots imported from some production centers or locally produced? As the amount of local production centers gradually developed, did the frequency of pottery trade decrease along time? This paper will address these questions through firsthand examinations, formal analysis and provenience study (ICP-AES).

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IIZUKA Yoshiyuki (Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, China)
Decoding ancient glass: Methods for chemical analysis
Panel: The contribution of glass study to East Asian archaeology (James LANKTON, Phyllis LIN)

By studying the chemical compositions of glass artifacts lead we can learn much about the cultural background of the glass, including the possible origins of materials and the development of glass making techniques. Although a number of analytical methods for determining chemical composition have been reported, comparison studies between different analytical methods contain several problems, and, in addition, the usefulness of a particular method depends largely on the archaeological questions being asked. This paper will review available methods for chemical analysis of early glass, such as electron-, and laser-beam analyses, with illustrations from the study of glass beads in Taiwan.

IIZUKA Yoshiyuki (Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, China) co-authored with Junko UCHIDA
A metallurgical Study on the Bronzes from Anyang Royal Tombs
Panel: Shang Archaeology (TANG Jigen, JIN Zhichun, Junko UCHIDA)

A series of metallurgical investigation has been carried out on bronzes from the Royal Tombs and the Palace area of Yinxu site, Anyang. Studied bronzes were prepared as polished section for structure observation and quantitative chemical analysis by a scanning electron microscope attached with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Results indicate that both casting technique and mixture ratios of source material of bronzes (Copper, Tin and Lead) were already well developed for different artifacts with the time. Source materials might be suggested by existing of minor elements from micro-segregation and inclusions of bronzes.

IKAWA SMITH, Fumiko (McGill University, Montreal, Canada)
"Obsidian Roads" of the Late Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherers in Pacific Northeast Asia
Panel: Inter-regional interaction in East Asian Prehistory and History (Francis ALLARD)

Starting about 25,000 Cal.YBP, the use of microblades in composite tools spread widely throughout Northeast Asia. Occurrences of some of the complex procedures for microblade detachment at widely separated locales could not be reasonably understood as the results of independent inventions. Additional evidence of inter-regional contacts is provided by the geochemical analysis of obsidian, which was often the favoured lithic material chosen for microblade production. Paleogeography of the north-western Pacific Rim, combined with the radiocarbon and tephro-chronological ages of the assemblages, helps us trace the procurement network, involving some open sea crossing as well as overland routes.

ITO, Shinji (Kokugakuin University, Tokyo, Japan)
Cultural landscape shift of Prehistoric Okinawa Islands: Case study of Izena Island group
Panel: Prehistoric Landscape Shifts in the East Asian Inland Seas (UCHIYAMA Junzo, Hideyuki ONISHI, Ilona BAUSCH)

One of the most important achievements of recent Ryukyu archaeology is Dr. Takamiya Hiroto’s new hypothesis about prehistoric human adaptation process of Okinawa Islands. In his hypothesis suggested that the possibility of depopulation period or human extinction on the prehistoric Okinawa Islands. I will discuss about this “Dark Age” problem in the northern part of Ryukyu archipelago (Okinawa, Amami and Tokara Islands) from the both view of material culture and prehistoric landscape use pattern.

ITOH Takao (Kyoto University, Japan, Japan)
Database of tree species and uses in wooden objects unearthed in Japan
Panel: Identification, preservation and study of ancient wooden relics in East Asia (Takao ITOH and Mechtild MERTZ)

A large number of wooden objects have been unearthed from different historic sites in Japan.  The wood species of these remains has been identified microscopically and published in the reports of unearthed cultural properties. It is important to make database of the excavated wood and do the statistical analysis for the deep understanding of the relation between tree species and their uses in different localities and era. The author published a database of excavated wood in Japan in 1988 for the first time. It has passed 20 years and a number of reports on wood identification have been piled up since that time. On this occasion, we made a basic list of wood artifacts composed of four successive divisions; gloss classification to detailed one, including the name of their subdivided parts. We arranged all wood artifacts according to the list. We also included ID number of each wooden object. The revised database includes the data of more than 250,000 wooden objects with more than 60,000 records. The database will give us statistical data of wood uses of a variety of species in ancient Japan.

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JIA, Weiming Peter (The University of Sydney, Australia) with Xinhua WU (Xinjiang Team of Archaeological Institute, Chinese Academy of Social Science)
Initial result of floatation at the Luanzanggang site in Xinjiang
Panel: Comparative Study of Early Complex Societies in East Asia and the World (LI Liu and CHEN Xingcan)

The initial result of floatation at the Luanzanggang site indicates the early farming has occurred during the Bronze Age on the northern Tianshan slope of Zhungerer Basin. The variety of the crops seeds found during the floatation shows this farming was multi-crops which possibly contained wheat, millet, barley. As parallel reference, crop seeds were also found at Wupu, Harmi, and Xiaohe cemetery around 2000BC. These crops should come from different area during the early Bronze Age, such as wheat and barley were possibly brought here from further west, Central Asia and West Asia. Through the transitional zone, Zhunggerer Basin, Xinjiang, these crops were brought to the further east Upper Yellow River and central China. But millet should follw the same route but with a opposite direction, from central China to Xinjiang and further west. This reflects the early connection between east and west. However, crop seeds foun at Luanzanggang is the first time report from Zhunggerer Basin and more similar discoveries should be presented along with the floatation process in further fieldwork.
农业种植的新证据:乱葬岗子遗址浮选的初步结果
乱葬岗子遗址浮选的初步结果表明了当时旱地农业的存在和东西方的交流。旱地农业在青铜时代已成为准噶尔盆地天山北坡的主要经济类型之一。浮选结果中的多种旱地种植谷物的发现,例如小麦,大麦,小米,黄米和很有可能高粱的出现说明了当时的农业已进入了多种谷物种植的阶段。与这一遗址相邻的天山南面的五堡,哈密和洋海墓地,黄米和小麦均有发现。另外还有孔雀河流域的小河、古墓沟墓地也发现了小麦和黄米,时代在公元前2000年左右的青铜时代。所有这些谷物很有可能是在青铜时代早期从不同的地方传入的。像小麦和大麦可能是从更远的西部,如中亚,西亚传入的。这些谷物通过新疆,准噶尔盆地和塔里木盆地又传到东面的黄河上游直致中原地区。但是黄米和小米是经过相反的路线,从中原进入黄河上游,再到新疆及中亚和更西的地区。这一相互的传播反映了早期东西方的联系。乱葬岗子遗址浮选的初步结果其种植谷物是在准噶尔盆地青铜时代的首次发现。随着将来更多的浮选工作的开展,新的、或与乱葬岗子浮选结果相似的也将会出现在田野工作中。(澳大利亚悉尼大学 贾伟明,中国社科院考古所 巫新华)

JIANG Zhilong (Yunnan Provincial Institute of Archaeology, China)
Preliminary insight on Bronze Age political organization based on settlement studies in the Lake Dian Basin, Yunnan China
Panel: Early Complex Societies in the Sichuan Basin and Surrounding Areas (Rowan FLAD)

In the 50 years since the discovery of the King of Dian tomb, the sociopolitical organization of the so-called Dian Kingdom remains poorly understood due to a paucity of research on occupation sites from the Bronze Age period. The recent discovery and excavation of a few known sites demonstrate a contrastive view of economic and social activity from portrayals depicted on bronze drums and cowrie shell containers. This paper presents preliminary findings from "shellmound" occupation sites and discusses the distribution of settlements relative to the "elite" cemetery grounds. Our discussion then evaluates how the data measures up to various working models proposed for Bronze Age political formations.
中國雲南滇池流域青銅器時代行政體制初現於群居部落之研究
自滇王墓發現至今五十多年來,由於對青銅器時代相關區域的疏於研究,因此後來對所謂滇王時代(約500BC)的社會行政體制亦缺少瞭解。最近在少數相關區域陸續挖掘發現,從出土之銅鼓和贮貝器可證明比對當時的社會狀態和經濟活動。本摘要既是要為探討從貝丘區遗址域的初現到部落葬区間之關聯性。我們自討論到評估就是為了要在未來對青銅器時代的行政經濟形成研究提出資料的建檔步驟和分類的工作進行模式。

JIN Gui-Yun (China)
Neolithic rice-paddy from the Zhaojiazhuang site, Shandong
Panel: New data and issues of archaeobotany in East Asia (Gary CRAWFORD, Hiroki OBATA, Zhijun ZHAO)

To identify and study the Neolithic rice-paddy in Shandong, eastern China, is not only an important issue in the development of Chinese rice agriculture, but also a key part of the study on rice spread in East Asia. Due to the limitation of archaeological materials and the research methods, there have been no discoveries about the Neolithic rice-paddy in Shandong Province for a long time. Based on the identification of possible rice-paddy by archaeological excavation, phytolith analysis of soil samples from this "paddy" has been systematically carried out and the results have shown a 4600~4300 years old rice-paddy preserved at the Zhaojiazhuang site. This is the first examination and study of the rice-paddy in North China by systematic phytolith analysis, which is very important for the Neolithic archaeological research and the study of the eastward spread of rice agricultural techniques in East Asia.

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KAMIJO Nobuhiko (Kyushu University, Japan)
Agricultural diffusion from the Use wear analysis of ground stone
Panel: MIYAMOTO Kazuo

This paper supposes how the prehistoric farming technology diffuses to the Japanese Islands from analysis of Ground Stone by introducing not only the morphological analysis but also the use-wear analysis. As a result, two sets that differed from function and uses were recognized, called saddle quern and polish/pound/indentation stones. The composition of the sets is different according to the locality and the location. Therefore, it is supposed that the reception of the food processing technique with the farming is not the monotheistic and drastic change at least, but compound and gradual change, and combined with the conventional technique.

KANG, In Uk (Faculty of History, college of Humanities and Social Sciences, Pukyong National Univerisity, Korea)
Alternative development of iron making in the East Asia in the first half of 1st millenium B.C.- based on the newly excavated iron tools from Barabash-3, Yankovsky culture of the Far East Region of Russia
Panel: NN

Newly excavated site Barabash-3 shed light on the existence of alternative tradition of iron making besides China in the Far East in the 1st millenium B.C.. Authour argues the reason why and how it could be possible in the 'periphery' from chinese civilization.

KANG, Bong W (Department of Cultural Resources Studies, Gyeongju University, Korea)
The Role of Long-distance Exchange in Socio-political Development in Protohistoric Korea
Panel: Inter-regional interaction in East Asian Prehistory and History (Francis ALLARD)

Many archaeologists have considered long-distance exchange to be one of the most important mechanisms in the development of early complex societies. The Korean peninsula is not an exception, since a great number of imported artifacts have been identified at many different archaeological sites in Korea. In addition, early Chinese historical literary sources provide brief statements of merchandises, processes, and the people(s) involved in the interregional exchange between Chinese dynasties and polities located in Korea. Combining literary sources with artifacts discovered in various locations of Korea, this paper will examine the role of long-distance exchange in the development of socio-political complexity in the Korean peninsula.

KARALI-GIANNAKOPOULOU, Ioulia (Lilian) (University of Athens-Greece, Greece)
Collecting Shells: Edward Morse and the 1878 Omori Excavations
Panel: A Century of Preserving Archaeological Heritage in East Asia (PAI Hyung II)

The Omori Excavations in 1878 as the first stratigraphically excavated site in Japan launched the field of pre-historic archaeological studies. This paper will analyze Edward Morse’s report on "Shell Mounds of Omori (1879)" focusing on his classification methods for arranging shells, bones, pottery and stone tools. This body of data would constitute Tokyo University’s first zoological specimens laboratory, the predecessor to today’s Tokyo University Museum. Because Tokyo University was the only specimens laboratory that had trained students in biology and archaeology, by the 1890s, all prehistoric finds in Japan was sent by Meiji government decree to the Tokyo University Anthropological Society (1893-).

KATO Hirofumi (Hokkaido University, Japan)
The origin and lineage of blade and microblade complex in Hokkaido Island
Panel: NN

The oldest microblade complex in Hokkaido Island is about 20,000 years ago. This is also the oldest one in the Japanese archipelago. Regarding the relationship of lithic complex and prehistoric people, the origin and the lineage of Paleolithic culture in Hokkaido Island are very important in the development of Paleolithic culture in East Asia.  In my presentation, I would like to examine the process of emargence of the Upper Paleolithic culture in Hokkaido Island with Tephra chronology, and to discuss about the origin and the lineage of blade and microblade complex from their comparative examinations.

KAUTZ, Sarah (University of Chicago, Dept. of Anthropology USA)
Facilitating Exchange; Interpreting Space and Identity at Dejima
Panel: NN

Across the globe, colonialism and imperialism often favored European dominance within localized contexts.  Scholars have asserted indigenous roles in cultural interaction via resistance and other means.  However, early European interaction with Japan turns many familiar aspects of colonialism on end.  Isolated in peripheral enclaves, Europeans were obliged to negotiate the Japanese political economy.  Cloistered on the man-made island of Dejima in Nagasaki Harbor from 1641 to 1853, Dutch occupants lived under the sustained, rigid control of the indigenous government.  This paper explores how material culture and artificial "space" (in)formed the identity, agency, and practices of Dejima’s inhabitants and visitors.

KEATES, Susan G.
Issues of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens dispersal in China
Panel: NN

The known geographic distribution of Homo erectus and archaic and modern Homo sapiens in China shows a concentration in the eastern half of the country and extending over different environments. This paper will examine how geography and climatic oscillations affected hominid dispersal during the Pleistocene and if dispersal behaviour differed between the earlier and later species of Homo. The role of faunal resources in hominid diet was probably a most critical aspect in adaptation throughout the Pleistocene, and I will outline its relationship to dispersal strategies.

KIKAWADA Osamu (Institution of History
Philology, Academia Sinica, China)
The emergence and meanings of "Huaxia state complex": the Chinese social structure of the so-called "Xia, Shang, Zhou" period
Panel: New Insights into the archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age (Lothar von FALKENHAUSEN and Xu HONG)

During the second millennium BC, Erlitou culture emerged in the mid-Yellow River Valley.  It was succeeded by Shang and Zhou Dynasties. In recent years, Japanese scholars labeled these states as "early dynasties". In this period, many states established in the Yellow River and Yangtze River valleys and gradually expanded their territories. This development eventually led to the emergence of the seven major states during the Warring States period. In this paper, I label these states as "Huaxia state complex" and compare them with early states and chiefdoms during the later Chinese neolithic period, evaluate their significance in early Chinese history.

KIM, Byung-joon (Hallym University, Korea)
Distribution and its buried goods of Han tombs
Panel: Mortuary analysis in Chinese Archaeology (Guolong LAI)

When it comes to analyze tombs, we are used to employ some factors with which we would classify and characterize them, i.e., size, period and rank when the dead was alive, etc. Now I’m trying to add simple one more thing. That is the distribution of the tombs. Especially late Warring States period and its successive Han period are well known for compulsory moving people for its control over the people. According to my previous research, it is obvious that Han tombs were centered near to the prefecture castles. I would assert that we are able to find some features which appear in the buried goods according to the distance to the political centers of that period.

KIM Gwon Gu (Department of Korean Studies, Keimyung University, Korea)
A critical review of major issues in the public archaeology of the North-eastern Asian countries
Panel: Public archaeology in the present and recent past in East Asia (Tim SCHADLA-HALL and Akira MATSUDA)

This paper aims to evaluate major issues in the East Asian Public Archaeology and reveal problems as well as practical solutions. So this paper is designed to find out more reliable research attitudes. This paper will deal with changing paradigms in archaeological researches as well as shifts in research issues in the recent decades in East Asia, particularly Koreas, China, and Japan. The issues in the public archaeologies this paper deal with will include ethnicity isssues in the contesting past with neighbours, Jomon people's role in Early Yayoi Period, changing Chinese archaeological paradigms, issues on distortion of the past  by way of history textbook and so on. This paper  will reconsider socio-political situations which lead to such ways of using  public archaeology in East Asia. It also try to trace what  archaeologists have been missed, which shoud not be missed for archaeological researches. Some suggestions will be made for more reliable future researches. Archaeologists are required to reconstruct what happened in the past rather than projecting their own  interpretations into the past, although it is not an easy task.

KIM Gyu-ho (Department of Conservation Science for Cultural Properties,Kongju National University, Korea)
Glass and glass crucibles from Wanggnun-ni
Panel: The contribution of glass study to East Asian archaeology (James LANKTON, Phyllis LIN)

The extensive archaeological remains at the Baekje Kingdom site of Wanggung-ni, Iksan, in South Jeolla Province, Korea, include a seventh century workshop area that was later covered by the construction of a Buddhist Temple. Remains of glass, gold and bronze artefacts, along with ceramic crucibles used in the working of these materials, provide evidence for a multi-craft high temperature technology centre. We will report the results of both chemical compositional and lead isotope analyses for the Wanggung-ni glass, some of the earliest lead-silica glass in East Asia, as well as review the evidence for primary glass production at Wanggung-ni.

KIM, Jongil (Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea)
Topophilia with life and death : the formation of agricultural landscape in the Korean Bronze Age
Panel: Prehistoric Landscape Shifts in the East Asian Inland Seas (UCHIYAMA Junzo, Hideyuki ONISHI, Ilona BAUSCH)

This paper aims to explore a way of formation of agricultural landscape in Korean Bronze Age. It will be argued that the agricultural landscape of the Bronze Age community in Korea, would be formed in the course of signifying and symbolising life, death and every day life of the people in a specific way. For example, they would intend to separate and signify the places of life, death and production, represented by house, burial and paddy field respectively and form a specific agricultural landscape , 2) the separated and signified places would be recognised in a specific way (e.g. a place related to ancestor or the past) by individuals and community throughout daily experience on their materialised expression (e.g. house and burial) and becomes a resource of social practice and power execution, 3) a specific type of 'generative rule', in particular, a generative rule of burial construction (e.g. emphasis on equality and communality) would affect to individuals and community in this experience and recognition, 4) people who left such pit houses, burials, paddy field and other types of site for production would formed multiple communities in a residential group.

KIM, Minkoo  (Department of Anthropology, Chonnam National University, Korea)
Factors Determining Size Variability of Carbonized Wheat Grains (Triticum aestivum L.) from Archaeological Sites: A Case Study from South Korea
Panel: New data and issues of archaeobotany in East Asia (Gary CRAWFORD, Hiroki OBATA, Zhijun ZHAO)

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains recovered from seven sites dated to the Proto-Three-Kingdoms period (circa 1-300 AD) in Korea were measured. The comparisons of length, breadth and thickness of the carbonized grains show that there are statistically significant size differences among the sites. This observation leads to the question of whether the differences are due to the effects of domestication, different charring conditions, genetic differences, or environmental factors. The analysis in this study, involving experimental charring of modern wheat grains, suggests that the observed patterns are best explained by genetic and/or environmental factors, and are only indirectly related to domestication processes and charring conditions. The result of the analysis is discussed in relation to the hypothetical agricultural systems of the Proto-Three-Kingdoms period.

KIZAWA, Naoko (Gangoji Institute for Research of Cultural Property, Japan)
Meanings of identification of natural wood species for Archaeological study -present situation in Japan
Panel: Identification, preservation and study of ancient wooden relics in East Asia (Takao ITOH and Mechtild MERTZ)

Identification of wood species of excavated wooden artifacts is getting popular in Japan. Main purpose of identification is to understand how they selected the species to specific purpose. Reconstruction of the vegetation is another purpose. To reveal the latter one we have to know not only the tendency of wood species of artificial objects but also that of the natural wood (rough wood). This report deals with the recent research and its results of identification of wood species of natural wood.

KLUYEV, Nikolay (Russian Academy of Science. Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, Russia)
New Archaeological Discoveries in the Far East of Russia (an Epoch of Paleometal)
Panel: NN

Last years archeologists of Primorye (Far East of Russia) have made the important discoveries:1. For the first time in region the burial ground with burial places in stone chambers has been found out. It has the nearest analogies in sites of a Bronze Age in Jilin province (China); 2. For the first time in Primorye the rests of workshop on processing iron (yankovskaya culture) are investigated. The workshop is dated the middle of 1 millennium BC; 3. For the first time the ritual complex of yankovskaya archeological culture has been found out. It has no analogies in archeology of Primorye. The received new data have essentially expanded our knowledge on archeology of the Far East of Russia.

KNAPP, Keith N. (The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, USA)
Using Artifacts to Date Texts: The Case of the Accounts of Filial Children
Panel: NN

In Kyoto, Japan, there exist two manuscripts written in classical Chinese entitled Xiaozi zhuan 孝子傳.  Both texts are Japanese copies of supposedly Chinese originals.  But how do we date these texts and prove that they were transmitted from China?  One of the methods developed by Japanese scholars has been to use the images and cartouches found on excavated artifacts adorned with filial piety stories to determine the provenance and date of these two texts. This paper will summarize these findings and show that beyond a doubt these manuscripts date to China’s early medieval period.

KOHL, Philip (Wellesley College, USA)
Practical Uses of Bronze Age Metals in SW Asia and the Western Eurasian Steppes: comparisons and contrasts with East Asia
Panel: NN

This paper focuses on the “standard” tools of the Early and Middle Bronze Circumpontic Metallurgical Province and different Late Bronze Metallurgical Provinces. Hoards of metal tools have been recovered from early 2nd millennium sites in Mesopotamia, and bronze sickles and stone sickle molds have been excavated on later sites in southern Ukraine. The metal tools of West Asia and the western Eurasian steppes are contrasted with those from East Asia, exploring the question of the integration of bronzes into the daily activities and subsistence practices of the inhabitants of West and East Asia during the Bronze Age.

KOMISSAROV, Sergai (Institute of Archaeology Ethnography of Siberian branch of RAN, Russia)
Xiaohe Culture of Xinjiang and its North Asian Affinities
Panel: NN

One of remarkable achivment of Chinese archaeology is rediscovery of Xiaohe culture in Lop Nor Region. Natural conservation of mummies’ graves with wooden, woollen, felt artifacts gives us the picture of developed society with complex rituals. But on the contrast to abandance of organic materials, nor sherds of ceramics, neither piece of metal were found. But namely these categories of objects are used in comparative studies. So it makes difficult to determine chronology as well as origin of Xiaohe Culture. Paper presents materials from early bronze age cultures of Northern and Central Asia to discuss the dates and direction of contacts.

KUZMIN, Yaroslav V. (Pacific Institute of Geography, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Pottery versus agriculture: what was first in Northeast Asia ?
Panel: New data and issues of archaeobotany in East Asia (Gary CRAWFORD, Hiroki OBATA, Zhijun ZHAO)

Pottery (i.e. fired clay vessels) originated in Northeast Asia in the terminal Pleistocene, ca. 13,700-13,300 BP (uncalibrated) (Kuzmin 2006). Agriculture emerged only in the Holocene. The earliest trace of millet cultivation in Northern China can now be dated to ca. 7700 BP. Rice domestication in South China is now securely dated to only ca. 5200 BP (Fuller et al. 2007), while before it was assumed to appear at ca. 10,000-8000 BP. Pottery in Northeast Asia definitely preceded agriculture; containers made out of burnt clay were used by sedentary hunter-gatherers for storage and processing of different types of food.

KUZMIN, Yaroslav V. (Pacific Institute of Geography, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Sources of archaeological obsidian in Northeast Asia: an update (with Michael D. Glascock and Vladimir K. Popov)
Panel:  Inter-regional interaction in East Asian Prehistory and History (Francis ALLARD)

Since 1992, we investigate sources of volcanic glass for prehistoric complexes of the Russian Far East and adjacent regions. Geochemical analysis revealed at least three major sources of obsidian in the Maritime Province and the Amur River basin: Basaltic and Obluchie plateaus, and the Paektusan Volcano. On Sakhalin Island, all obsidian was acquired from neighbouring Hokkaido Island. On Kamchatka Peninsula, several sources (at least 16 have been detected) were used in prehistory. The Paektusan Volcano was the primary supplier of high-quality volcanic glass to the Palaeolithic and Neolithic communities of the Korean Peninsula, and to nearby regions of China and Russia.

 

L

LAI, Guolong (University of Florida, USA)
The Transformation of Burial Space in Early China: The Chu Contributions
Panel: Mortuary analysis in Chinese Archaeology (Guolong LAI)

This paper discusses the importance of the southern Chu state’s contributions in the transformation of the early Chinese burial space from vertical pit tomb to horizontal chamber tomb. It argues that this spatial transformation resulted from the materialization of an imagination that the deceased need a place within the burial space in which he or she could continue to sacrifice to his or her ancestors in the afterlife, but also to receive sacrifices from his or her descendants. This paper will explore the rich archaeological materials of the Warring States and early Han period excavated in south China in recent decades.

LAM, Dzung Thi My (Senior Researcher, Vietnam)
Sa Huynh Culture in Southeast and East Asian Context: It’s Distribution, Chronology and Features (by comparative studies)
Panel: Vietnamese Archaeology (Le Lien THI)

Tradition of jar burial is a phenomenon found in many regions of Asia and Europe in the same period of about 3,000 BP. In East Asia, Islands Southeast Asia and Central Vietnam, this tradition developed through several stages and shared the similarities in practices and customs as observed from cemeteries complex.
By systematizing and analyzing the latest data of Sa Huynh jar burials found from the most important field surveys and excavations in Central Vietnam, this paper aims at following aspects:
1. Content of Sa Huynh Culture, its progression in time and space as long as mutually cultural relation between endogenous and exogenous factors.
2. Comparative studying of Sa Huynh jar-burial tradition and its counterparts in East and Southeast Asian countries.
3. The similar features in the structure and junction of jar-burial sites in Southeast and East Asian Context, so that Vietnamese Sa Huynh culture’s particular characters could be set off.

LAM, Yin-Man (Department of Anthropology, University of Victoria, Canada)
Assessing the effects of taphonomic processes on skeletal element abundance in archaeological assemblages: An example from the site of Dayan, Guangxi (with FU Xianguo, CHEN Xingcan, YUAN Jing)
Panel: Methods and Issues in the Zooarchaeology of East Asia (YUAN Jing, Richard H. MEADOW)

Taphonomic processes may result in the destruction of archaeological faunal remains, obscuring the evidence of human activity. Some bones preserve better than others. The most accurate bone density measurements have shown a clear difference between the epiphyses and shaft portions of long bones. As a result, the relative preservation of epiphyses and shaft fragments may provide an assessment of how much damage has occurred to a faunal assemblage. We examine these variables in faunal samples from the site of Dayan, Guangxi province, to determine the condition of these faunal remains and what factors to consider before making interpretations of human behavior.

LANKTON, James W. (UCL Institute of Archaeology, UK) Co-authored with LEE Insook (Director, Busan Museum, Korea) and KIM Gyu-Ho (Gongju National University, Gongju, Korea)
Treasures from the Southern Sea: Glass ornaments from early Gaya
Panel: The contribution of glass study to East Asian archaeology (James LANKTON, Phyllis LIN)

We studied by chemical compositional analysis over one hundred glass beads from the Gimhae-Yangdong and Bokcheondong cemeteries in southern Korea, dating from the first to the fifth centuries CE. While glass beads were morphologically similar during all periods, the actual sources of the glass varied with time. Most, if not all, of the glass was from South and Southeast Asia, with an important shift in production areas beginning in the second century. This glass compositional data provides some of the first strong evidence for early, active, exchange between Southeast Asia and the Korean Peninsula.

LBOVA, Luidmila (Novosibirsk State University, Russia)
Geoarchaeology of Early Upper Palaeolithic complexes in the Baikal-rift zone
Panel: NN

Baikal-rift zone is situated deep in the Eurasia continent, within the contact area of two large geographical zones: the subcontinents of North and Central non-tropical Asia. This region is included in pert of the Mongolian-Siberian folded region representing a wide range of environmental conditions in at the present time. Particularly, all  EUP sites are associated with the middle - elevation mountain landscape complex; isometric marks there are up 600-700 m to 1100-1200 m above sea level.  Cultural modifications of the Trans-Baikal – North Mongolia EUP represent two evolutionary trends: the a predominant one based on only blade technologies; and the a secondary one based on other reduction techniques. Based on the multi-disciplinary work, we conclude that generally, cultural complexes associated with anatomically modern humans appeared in the region are appear around 40,000 RCYBP that to confirm of complex chronology, stratigraphy, paleogeography, archaeology datas.

LE, Lien Thi (Institute of Archaeology Vietnam academy of social sciences, Vietnam)
The Bi Thuong brick tomb and its context in Northern Vietnam
Panel: Vietnamese Archaeology (Le Lien THI)

In July 2006, a brick tomb was unearthed during the restoration of the Bi Thuong pagoda (Uong Bi town, Quang Ninh province). This is one of few brick tombs unearthed recently, after the excavations of Olov Janse and the Institute of Archaeology during the 1930’s and the 1970’s, mainly in Thanh Hoa, Bac Ninh, Hai Duong and Quang Ninh provinces. In addition to the studies carried out recently by Vietnamese and foreign researchers, this paper aims at providing new excavated information and discussion on the scale, typology, grave goods of the brick tombs in the Quang Ninh area during the 1st millennium A.D. In comparison with the brick tombs in other areas of North Vietnam, as well as south China, the paper will also aim at identifying the factors that influenced the customs and funeral rites of Northern Vietnamese people, who were the owners of the brick tombs during this period.

LEE, Gyoung-Ah (University of Oregon, USA)
Spatial Patterns of Plant Use in the Yiluo Valley, North China
Panel: Comparative Study of Early Complex Societies in East Asia and the World (LI Liu and CHEN Xingcan)

This paper investigates distributional patterns of plant remains from over forty sites in the Yiluo Valley, north China. It aims to explore the spatial implications on agricultural production and distribution over 5000 years, dating from the Early Neolithic (Peiligang) to the Shang (Erligang) periods. Multi-cropping systems developed from the Late Peiligang period, emphasizing on dry crops in the region. In previous study, differences in site function and/or taphonomy were suggested by the contrast in archaeological seed densities between small and large settlements. Based on increased sample sizes, the paper further tests the spatial auto-correlation patterns of plant resources.

LEE, Christine (Chinese Center for Frontier Archaeology, Jilin University, China)
Population interaction among peoples of the frontier of China and Mongolia from the Bronze Age to Medieval Period (2500 BCE-1500 CE)
Panel: NN

This study analyzed 721 individuals from 91 archaeological in China and Mongolia.  These sites represent the Chinese, Xiongnu, Xianbei, Qidan, Scythian, Xindian, Huimo, Wanggu, and Mongolians.  Thirty-seven cranial and twenty-six dental nonmetric traits were collected to examine the population history of this area from the Bronze Age to the Medieval Period (2500 BCE-1500 CE).  The samples were divided into four geographic regions: (1) Central Plains, (2) Northern Zone, (3) Manchuria, and (4) the Western Regions.  The mean measure of divergence statistic was used to quantify patterns of population interaction and movement across geographic regions and through time periods.

LEE, Heekyung (Kookmin University, Korea)
Revisiting Toma-ri kiln at Kwangju Kiln Complexes
Panel: NN

Toma-ri kiln sites, located at the Kwangju in Kyong’gi Province, one of the earliest kilns of the high-fired and well-vitrified white porcelain wares in Korea, produced wares for use at the royal court during the Choson dynasty. Nevertheless of the significance of the position in world porcelain history, the recovered materials at the sites have not yet thoroughly since its excavation in 1960s. Based on the author’s first-hand analysis of excavated materials, this paper attempts to attribute working date and function of this kiln factory, locating the production into a socio-economic context of the period.

LEE, Heekyung (Kookmin University, Korea)
The "Re-discovery" of Ceramic Traditions in Colonial Korea; The Reconstruction of Choson Era Kiln Sites in Kwangju, Korea
Panel: A Century of Preserving Archaeological Heritage in East Asia (PAI Hyung II)

Art historians and collectors of Korean ceramics such as Asakawa brothers (Hakkyo and Takume) and Kasai Shuichiro played an instrumental role in the "re-discovery," and investigations of Choson porcelain wares and kiln sites in Korea. The Colonial Government General of Korea (1910-1945) also hired archaeologists to conduct systematic field surveys and excavations of the most famous kilns and manufacturing sites dating to the Koryo and Choson dynasties. Thus, Japanese scholars were the first to uncover the remains of the royal Choson kilns concentrated in the area of Kwangju, located in Kyonggi Province, as well as in the southern parts of Korea. By analyzing colonial period excavation reports, exhibition catalogues, and art historical publications on kilns and pottery production, this paper will show how Pre-War Japanese scholarship impacted the classificatory and stylistic studies of Choson porcelain and has left a lasting aesthetic and academic legacy until today.

LEE, Insook (Busan Museum, Korea)
The Contribution of Glass Study to East Asian Archeology
Panel: The contribution of glass study to East Asian archaeology (James LANKTON, Phyllis LIN)

The glass artifacts found in Korean peninsular provide the most convincing evidence for Korean contact with Southeast Asia during the early period, beginning by the first century CE or even earlier.Most of the glass compositional families represented in Korea have strong associations in South and Southeast Asia, and further investigation of these association will be important for Korean archeology.

LENGYEL, Alfonz (Fudan Museum Foundation, Sarasota, Florida. USA)
Ancient Chinese Sexual Objects –The "intangible" value of Spiritual  & Material Heritage
Panel: NN

The scholarly research about sex culture in Ancient China was quite neglected by China specialists, although popularized and less sensually exploited publication often appeared in the pornographic market. This is not the direction where scholars want to go. The first publication appeared the very much-criticized book of Robert Van Gulik in 1960, then republished in 1974. It was entitled Sexual Life in Ancient China. So far the la, test one in this subject was written by Paul Rikita Goldin, The Culture and Sex in Ancient China . Because lack of larger volume of scholarly works on this area of research, the state of scholarship in this subject is still heavily subjected to individual interpretation of the available ancient and modern text. To understand and then interpret the symbolism in ancient Chinese text, which related to sensual feeling, or sexual act of that time, requires a holistic approach to encompass the "intangible" cultural and psychological fabrics of the period.

LEVINE, Marsha (University of Cambridge, UK)
Palaeopathology as a tool for investigating Chinese Bronze Age horse husbandry
Panel: Methods and Issues in the Zooarchaeology of East Asia (YUAN Jing, Richard H. MEADOW)

The earliest evidence, so far, for the domesticated horse in China is from the Late Shang dynasty at Anyang. The horse is associated with chariot burials at many sites in Bronze Age China. There is a widespread assumption that, until the Warring States period, the domestic horse was probably used only for chariotry and in ritual sacrifices. However, as yet, no systematic investigation of this question has been carried out. In this paper I will demonstrate how palaeopathology – the study of ancient bony changes – can help us to better understand horse husbandry in ancient China.

LI Chaorong (IVPP, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China)
The Upper Paleolithic in Beijing
Panel: Palaeolithic Archaeology of East Asia (SHEN Chen and Gao XING)

There are plenty of Paleolithic culture sites in Beijing area. The Upper Cave site was discovered in 1930 during an investigation of the deposit area of the Peking Man Cave. It is the cave site of the earliest find in Paleolithic in China. There are 20 upper Paleolithic sites in Beijing up to now. The Orient Plaza of Wangfujing Street is a very important site. More than 2000 artifacts were unearthed from the site, including stone and bone artifacts, fossils, hematite powder, fire use remains and plant root and foliage. In bone artifacts a total of 79 pieces of them are spliced into 33 bigger pieces. 45pieces of them have stone cutting, chopping, or scoring marks. It provides very material to study the Paleolithic culture in the North China.

LI Fei (Guizhou Provincial Institute of Archaeology, China)(coauthor: ZHANG He-rong)
Culture change in Guizhou, from the prehistoric period to the Han dynasty - a focus on Zhongshui sites
Panel: Early Complex Societies in the Sichuan Basin and Surrounding Areas (Rowan FLAD)

From prehistory to the Han period, the development of civilization in Guizhou underwent a course of development from autochothonous cultures with local roots to the Han period when Han culture became dominant. In recent years, new discoveries in the Zhongshui region of Weining, Guizhou have established the outline of this transition process. In the region where Guizhou, Yunnan, and Sichuan come together, research on the discoveries in the Zhongshui area and surrounding regions provide key data in understanding early societies in the Southwest.
从史前到汉代,贵州古代文明走过了一个由多元并存的土著文化时期向以汉文化为主体的汉代过渡的历程。近年我们在贵州威宁中水的新发现,正好勾勒出这样一个历史线索。由于地处云贵川三省交界,威宁中水及周邻地区相关遗址的研究,成为揭开诸多西南夷问题的关键。

LI Feng (Columbia University, USA )
Explaining Guicheng: Socioeconomic Structure of a Bronze-Age Society in the Multicultural Environment on the South Shore of the Bohai Sea
Panel: New Insights into the archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age (Lothar von FALKENHAUSEN and Xu HONG)

Guicheng is a prominent Bronze-Age city situated in the eastern part of the Jiaodong peninsula, traditionally known to have been the heartland of the so-called "Dongyi" people, but it has yielded a long series of discoveries of inscribed Western Zhou bronzes. The present paper furnishes a field-report on our joint survey at Guicheng with the Institute of Archaeology (CASS) and Shandong Institute of Archaeology in 2007-2008 and will explore its implications for understanding societies in Bronze-Age China particularly the Shandong region. The paper deals heavily with cultural relations and examines how these relations were played out in the overall political structure of the peninsula in the special historical context marked by the accommodation by the local societies of the advancing Zhou power.

LI Meitian (Beijing Normal University, China)
Interaction and Transformation of Mortuary Culture in the Six Dynasties Period
Panel: Mortuary analysis in Chinese Archaeology (Guolong LAI)

This paper will explore the cultural interaction and transformation of mortuary rites that took placed in the Six Dynasties period by analyzing the rich burial materials excavated in recent years. The increased political, military, and cultural interaction among different regions of China during this period of transition between two unified dynasties (the Han and the Tang) brought the transformations of the mortuary practices in each region. It argues that the integration of diverse cultural elements through cultural exchanges within these regions created a distinctive mortuary culture of the Six Dynasties period. It is the mortuary regionalism that in turn found its dynamics in cultural interaction.

LI Min, Guo Xiankun (University of Michigan Changdao Museum, USA)
Felons and Goddess: Miaodao Archipelago and the Emergent Imperial Seascape
Panel: Island Archaeology in East Asia – Interaction and Isolation (Barbara SEYOCK)

Few islands in historic China had a history so dynamic and multifaceted as the Miaodao Archipelago connecting Liaodong and Shandong Peninsula. In the cultural landscape of the Song-Yuan society, these islands represented the feared destination for the most condemned criminals and a fairyland where immortals resided. Beneath those paradoxical literary representations, the archipelago evolved from a node in the maritime trade network operated by the pirates and smugglers between Song and Khitan to a major transit station for the marine grain transport fleet, which was critical for the economic stability of the Yuan Empire. Our paper examines the diverse archaeological remains of the islands’ changing role in interregional interaction and political configuration. It serves as a case study for exploring the complex relationship between historiography and archaeology as they often deviate on islands.

LI Qinghui*, GAN Fuxi**, ZHANG Ping***, CHENG Huansheng**** (*Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University of Science,Tokyo, Japan, **Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, P. R. China, *** Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology, Urumchi, P. R. China, ****Fudan University, Shanghai, P. R. China)
Chemical Composition Analyses of Early Glasses of Different Historical Periods Found in Xinjiang, China
Panel: NN

Chemical composition of more than 50 early glass samples unearthed and collected from Xinjiang was determined. These glass samples dates from the Western-Zhou and the Spring and Autumn period to the Song-Yuan period. The methods used were proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy(RBS). It is found that the glass beads of the Western-Zhou to the Spring and Autumn period (about 1100B.C.~ 500 B.C., including eye beads) unearthed from Kezi’er and Tacheng are attributed to several kinds, such as Na2O(K2O)-CaO-SiO2 glass, Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 glass and MgO-PbO-SiO2 glass. In the Warring States, three kinds of glass—Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass, K2O-SiO2 glass and PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass, were coexistent in Xinjiang. From the Han dynasty to the Song-Yuan period, the glasses were mainly Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass and Na2O-K2O-CaO-SiO2 glass. As a whole, the chemical composition of the early glasses in Xinjiang has its special characteristics. Its technical development is also different from that of the other areas in China. For example, the glasses unearthed from Nei Meng Gu area, the glass beads of the Western Zhou period are actually faience, which contains mainly SiO2 and few K2O and CaO flux. The glass beads of the Han Dynasty belong to the PbO-SiO2 system. Most of the glasses of the Yuan Dynasty and part beads of the Northern Wei Dynasty belong to K2O-CaO-SiO2 system. The silk road in the north-west part of China played a very important role in the technical exchange of early glass making between Xinjiang, central China, middle and west Asia, and in the import of glass wares. The relationship between the glass-making technical development of Xinjiang and those of Mesopotamia, Egypt and India was discussed.

LI Yanxiang (Institute of Historical Metallurgy and Materials, USTB, China)
Ancient Metallurgy in Liaoxi Region, Northeast China
Panel: Eurasian metallurgy and society (ZHANG Liangren)

Liaoxi region is one of the most important regions to trace the origin of Chinese Civilization archaeologically. Bronze metallurgy was believed to be the technological element of civilization, so it is needed to uncover the early metal technology in the region. What is reported here are the main progresses we have made so far, including the copper smelting technology at the Nuiheliang site, the analysis of bronze artifacts unearthed from the tombs of the Lower Xiajiadian Culture, the Bronze smelting technology of three mining and(or) smelting sites of the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, and other new findings in relation to early metallurgy.

LI Yung-ti (Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, China)
The Missing Link? Long-Distance Trade and Exchange in Early Bronze Age China
Panel: New Insights into the archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age (Lothar von FALKENHAUSEN and Xu HONG)

Western archaeology has highlighted the importance of long-distance trade and exchange in ancient civilizations since Childe’s pioneering research of the Near East. Similar discussion, however, is conspicuously missing in the study of Early Bronze Age China. Due to the prevalent political dynastic model, regional interactions are readily explained away in the fabrics of political domination and subjugation. However, before more sourcing studies become available and before the establishment of culture history in the "peripheries" with resolutions equivalent to those in the "center", it is too early and even unproductive to rule out the importance of trade and exchange in ancient China.

LI YY*, KJ WILLIS**, LP ZHOU*, HT CUI* (*Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Department of Geography, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China **Long-term Ecology Laboratory, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, School of Geography, China)
Palynological and paleoecological evidence for buckwheat cultivation history in Western Liaohe River Basin, Inner Mongolia, China
Panel: New data and issues of archaeobotany in East Asia (Gary CRAWFORD, Hiroki OBATA, Zhijun ZHAO)

 

LI Zhipeng (Institute of Archaeology, CASS, China)
The cattle husbandry from the late Neolithic age to the early Bronze age in North China
Panel: Methods and Issues in the Zooarchaeology of East Asia (YUAN Jing, Richard H. MEADOW)

The history of animal domestication in China is long and involves different processes for different animals. During the late neolithic age in north China, cattle had been domesticated. From the late neolithic age to the early bronze age in north China, the animal husbandry has develop greatly, including the proportion in the domesticated animals, the kill-off pattern, the production and exchange system accompanied by the urbanization. During the early bronze age the cattle meat consumed by the urban dweller was mainly provisioned by the rural settlement, which reflected the network of urban-rural exchange coinciding with urbanization.

LIM, Sangtaek (Pusan National University, Korea)
Landscape Change and Settlement Reorganization during the Middle Chulmun period in Southern Korea
Panel: Prehistoric Landscape Shifts in the East Asian Inland Seas (UCHIYAMA Junzo, Hideyuki ONISHI, Ilona BAUSCH)

This paper focuses on the spread of a new subsistence pattern and the consequent landscape change during the Middle Chulmun period (ca. 3,500~3000 B.C.) in Southern Korea. Midwest Korea has yielded the earliest evidence of agriculture in the Chulmun period, and these newly formed H-G societies which were assumed to cultivate domesticated crops such as mainly foxtail millet spread into Southern Korea. The major portion of their foodstuff still came from the traditional subsistence activities (i.e. Hunting-gathering-fishing) as ever. However, cultivation of domesticated crops which were newly introduced, played a key role in socio-economic landscape shift of the Middle Chulmun period in Southern Korea. Settlement with rectangular pit houses emerged for the first time in the regions that were never occupied until then. These marked changes resulted from the spread of incipient agriculture, led to the first important socio-economic landscape change in the entire Chulmun period of Southern Korea.

LIN Hu (The University of Chicago, Department of Anthropology, USA)
Ceramic Consumption and Socioeconomic Differentiation: An Archaeological Study of a Liao Pastureland Town
Panel: NN

Current anthropological perspectives of urbanism approach cities as central places. However, in the Liaoxi grassland during the Liao period, cities and towns emerged as settlements for war captives and served as the hinterland which was exploited and controlled by the mobile center, composed of the imperial court, nobles and bureaucrats. Toward addressing the questions of nomadic empire and grassland urbanism, I have conducted an extensive surface collection at the Bitubei site, a Liao Dynasty walled settlement in the Liaoxi grassland. In this paper, I discuss socioeconomic differentiation across the site through multivariate analysis of ceramic assemblages from different collection units.

LIN Yiling (Department of Anthropology, National Taiwan University, China)
Chaîne Opératoire and the Ceramic Transformation during the Late Neolithic Taipei Basin, Taiwan
Panel: Some New Practices in Taiwanese Archaeological Research (Maaling CHEN and Pochan CHEN)

The Tianwentai Site in the Taipei Basin was excavated in 1993 but no complete site report has been published.  The major excavator indicates that the site includes the Yuanshan Culture (ca. 3300-2100 B.P.) and the Zhiwuyuan Culture (ca. 2100-1800 B.P.).  Some scholars believe that the Zhiwuyuan Culture was directly developed from the Yuanshan Culture, and the major differences were the emergence of impression decoration and paste of pottery.  I would like to use the concept of chaîne opératoire to observe the resource procurement, forming technology and usage of pottery of the Tianwentai site to examine if there has ceramic transformation between the two cultures and discuss the current argument.

LIU Chao-Hui Jenny (New York University, USA)
Domestic and Public spaces in Tang Tombs
Panel: Mortuary analysis in Chinese Archaeology (Guolong LAI)

How are domestic and public spaces represented in Tang tombs? This paper discusses the boundaries and thresholds in Tang tombs as demarcated by murals, figurines, and stone-line-engravings.  Strikingly realistic in appearance, the figures painted on walls and sculpted in clay were made and positioned in ways which alternately suggested the structure of a "mansion in death" and the movement of death rituals. This paper will argue that this was a refinement of artistic concepts already seen in previous Northern Dynasties tombs. Examples range from the elite tombs of Tang princes and princesses to ministers third grade and above.

LIU Jiun-Yu (Department of Anthropology, National Taiwan University, China)
From Military Industry Bureau to Taipei Workshop: An observation of cultural changes
Panel: Some New Practices in Taiwanese Archaeological Research (Maaling CHEN and Pochan CHEN)

In the end of 19th century, the Taiwan Provincial Governor Liu Mingchuan established the first Military Industry Bureau(1885) in Taipei, which mainly manufactured cannon and gunpowder.  However, with the fail of the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), Taiwan was ceded to Japan and the Military Industry Bureau was transformed to armory and railway workshop.  In less than two decades, this place went through two different polities and cultures.  With the construction of new metro system in 2006, archaeologists unearthed this famous relic.  In this presentation, I would like to use this case to discuss how the artifacts and spatial utilization was transformed when an alien polity suddenly came into a place.

LIU Li
Regional similarities and variability in the emergence of sedentism and agriculture in East Asia
Panel: Comparative Study of Early Complex Societies in East Asia and the World (LI Liu and CHEN Xingcan)

Grinding stones as multifunctional tools have been found in many areas worldwide, and are often regarded as an indicator of cereal agriculture in Neolithic China. This paper questions this traditional interpretation, and investigates the functions of this tool type based on evidence from archaeology, archaeobotany, ethnography and pollen record. By comparing the uses of grinding stones in different regions, this study attempts to provide new insights into regional similarities and variability, relevant to the emergence of sedentism, pottery, and agriculture in East Asia.

LIU Yu and YUE Zhanwei (Institute of Archaeology, CASS, China)
Study on the Mold-Casting Technology of Yinxu Bronze Ritual Vessels
Panel: NN

Many scholars discussed the casting technology of Yinxu bronze ritual vessels, but new excavation of Yinxu provided new thoughts of this problem. By contrast the details of bronze vessels and clay moulds, the technique of making mould assembly is discussed, including the methods of making mould, model and core, as well as the method of casting inscription and design. A new sign method using number and letters is established to categorize the assembly types of typical vessels as Ding cauldron etc. The results express that the technique of making assembly is complex and standard. In the assembly design, the section-molds are divided along both the vertical line and the layer line to make different size and shape bronze vessels.
殷墟青铜礼器范铸技术研究
刘煜 岳占伟
(中国社会科学院考古研究所,北京,100710)
许多学者都研究过殷墟青铜礼器的铸造工艺,最近殷墟的新发现,特别是孝民屯铸铜遗址出土的大量铸铜遗物,为这一问题提供了新思路。本文利用出土遗物和青铜器的对照,着重探讨了殷墟青铜礼器铸型的制作工艺,包括模、范、芯的制作和铭文、花纹的做法。同时利用数字和字母结合的新型标示法,对典型器类进行铸型工艺分析。上述研究表明:殷墟青铜礼器的铸型制作复杂而规范,垂直和水平分范的设计解决了器形弧度和尺寸的问题。

 

LU Peng (Graduate School of CASS, China)
Research on the Origin of Domestic Cattle in China
Panel: Methods and Issues in the Zooarchaeology of East Asia (YUAN Jing, Richard H. MEADOW)

Cattle is one of the so named "six livestock. The research on the origins of domestic cattle is an important element of the study of domestication in zooarchaeology. Lots of cattle remains have been found in Neolithic sites, but the research on the origins of domestic cattle from the view of zooarcheaology is still laggard in China. The intention of this thesis is to give a summary of the current data and to improve the research.

LU Tracey L-D (The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China)
Social Evolution in Prehistoric Hong Kong
Panel: Prehistoric Archaeology of South China and Southeast Asia (FU Xianguo, LU Lie Dan, LI Guo)

The development of subsistence strategies has been one of the most important topics in prehistoric archaeology ever since modern archaeology becomes a discipline, with the transition from foraging to farming as a key issue. With research outcome first in the Middle East, and later in other core areas of the world, there seems a general consensus in the archaeological academia that the transition from foraging to farming is a development from one to another completely different subsistence strategy; it has also been argued that the expansion of farming societies is the major driving cause for the distribution of linguistic families in the world today.
However, archaeological studies in the last decades in China, particularly in the Yangzi River Valley and South China, raised several questions. First, it seems that the transition from foraging to farming cannot be as clearly cut as we thought before, for both are essential elements of the subsistence strategies of many prehistoric groups in these areas, although the importance of the two varied in different groups and in different time. Second, societies mainly based on foraging but with sedentism and highly developed ceramic technology can also expand to other areas and produce significant cultural influences. It is hypothesized that population growth and the depletion of natural resource might have been the driving force of cultural expansion and human diaspora.

LUO Yunbing (WUHAN UNIVERSITY China )
Pig’s raising and using ritually in Dadianzi site
Panel: Methods and Issues in the Zooarchaeology of East Asia (YUAN Jing, Richard H. MEADOW)

The study on the pig bone remains from the Dadianzi site indicated that the activity of raising pig is very outstanding, and the pigs were widely used in buries ceremonies. This data provided important clue for discussing the early development of pig-raising in Lao river basin, which made clear that the body size of pig population in Dadianzi site was bigger than that of other region pig population contemporaneous, and suggested that the cultivating of domestic pig breed was successive obviously in this region. In Dadianzi cemetery the number of full pig-sacrifice is very big, and the mode of disposal to pig-sacrifices was extraordinary unusual, which reflected the especial demand. This demand maybe comes spirit field, which indicated traditional rite.

M

MACHICEK, Michelle (University of Sheffield, UK)
Degenerative Joint Disease among Ancient Nomadic Pastoralists of Mongolia and its Potential Implications
Panel: Bioarchaeological research in East Asia (Ekaterina PECHENKINA)

The Iron-Age in Mongolia is a period of social complexity exemplified by the presence of the Xiongnu confederation which dominates the archaeological landscape of this period. Presented here are the initial findings of an analysis of degenerative joint disease in a sample of Iron-Age skeletons from various regions of Mongolia. This study examines the nature and severity of the condition as it is related to habitual activities and chronic degeneration over time. The implications of these early findings are discussed with the aim of highlighting future research possibilities.

MATSUDA Akira (Institute of Archaeology, University College London, Japan)
Archaeology and the media in Japan
Panel: Public archaeology in the present and recent past in East Asia (Tim SCHADLA-HALL and Akira MATSUDA)

Although the media play an essential role in shaping the public perception and understanding of archaeology, a very few studies have thus far been carried out on how the dedia "speak" about archaeology in Japan. By analyzing the topics in archaeology covered by the media, this paper seeks to ighlight the discourse underpinning the media reports of Japanese archaeology, which, I argue, is closely related to the way in which archaeology is theorized and practiced in Japan.

McCLAIN, Jeff (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA)
All of Sichuan is Virgin Soil: Feng Hanji and the Development of Archaeology in Wartime Sichuan
Panel: Public archaeology in the present and recent past in East Asia (Tim SCHADLA-HALL and Akira MATSUDA)

This paper seeks to contribute one part toward a larger understanding the development of the discipline of archaeology in modern China by examining the work of Feng Hanji in Sichuan during World War II. In his capacity as a professor at Sichuan University and as curator of the Sichuan Provincial Museum, Feng worked vigorously, both at academic and at popular levels, to promote the archaeological study of China’s southwest. Adept at moving in local, national and international circles, Feng countered central-plains inspired biases and popular misconceptions about the emerging field and set archaeology in Sichuan on sound footing for years to come.

MEADOW, Richard (Harvard University, Department of Anthropology, USA)
NN
Panel: Methods and Issues in the Zooarchaeology of East Asia (YUAN Jing, Richard H. MEADOW)

 

MEDHI, Bandita (ARYA VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE, GUWAHATI, India)
Consolidation of Surface Communication during Ahom Rule: A Structural Study
Panel: NN

The Tais of present Myanmar entered into India’s Assam through the Patkai range in the 13th century AD and overpowering the ruling kings there, established their rule in the upper basin of the river Brahmaputra initially. Later their rule extended to lower valley also. They ruled the region for over 600 years till the British annexed the region in the 19th century. During their time, they had raised infrastructures of various kinds some of which are still under working condition continuing since last several hundred years. This paper compiles the details of the roads & streets constructed by the Ahom kings, their structural pattern and a proposal for their preservation.

MEDHI, Dilip K. (Gauhati University, India)
The Great Indian Corridor in the East
Panel: NN

Since the time of the World War II, almost the entire World has received the attention of academicians in the field of anthropology and archaeology, and thus many unknown localities in the Pacific, Africa and South America came to our knowledge to a large extent. The only exception in this respect is a landlocked territory of India, which was none else than the erstwhile Assam that bridges the mainland India with Southeast Asia and China, remained unattended although it has all kinds of significance of anthropological and ethnological sciences.
In 1998, I identified the Assam Region as the ‘Great Indian Corridor in the East’ that witnesses human movements from Southeast Asia, China and mainland India as well. Today the region populates with dominant Austronesians, and brings together the great Mongoloids and the non-Mongoloids. Culturally this part of India is considered as a part of Southeast Asia that embraces Bangladesh too.
The need of the day is the region requires active and urgent attention of anthropologist and archaeologist in search of its past and the resultant present day situation before it comes under major focus of modernization followed by industrialization after an immediate possibility to get connected with Southeast Asia and China.

MEDRANA, Jack Gilbert (Archaeological Studies Program, University of the Philippines Philippines)
The China Factor in Philippine Archaeology
Panel: NN

The proximity of the Philippines to the highly regarded and well-studied region of China has influenced the study of Philippine archaeology. Explanations on the evolution of agriculture and a metal age in the Philippines imply a mainland East Asian ultimate origin. Discourses on the appearance of complex societies on the islands are helped by Chinese textual reconstructions and the use of Chinese artifacts by archaeologists to characterize and explain the period in question. This paper includes the situations and issues pertaining to the subject, and attempts to identify means of healthy collaboration by scholars of both countries.

MEI Jianjun (University of Science and Technology Beijing, China)
Metallurgical Analysis of Early Metal Objects from the Liushui Cemetery, Xinjiang, Northwest China
Panel: Eurasian metallurgy and society (ZHANG Liangren)

This paper presents the results of metallurgical examination of 26 metal samples taken from bronzes recently excavated from the Liushui cemetery site in Xinjiang, Northwest China, which is dated to the first half of the first millennium BC. This is the first time that we have obtained evidence for the early use of metals in the Kunlun Mountains region. As shown by the examination of the Liushui samples, tin bronzes were predominant at the site, whereas arsenical copper was absent, showing a contrast to the significant presence of arsenical copper in eastern Xinjiang and the Gansu Corridor during the second and first millennia BC.

MELEND, Rhayan G. (Archeology student of the Archeological Studies Program at the University of the Philippines Philippines)
The Archaeology of Death: Significance of the Burials from Babo Balukbuk, Porac on the Pre-Spanish History of Pampanga, Central Philippines
Panel: NN

According to Jean Mallat, a French historian who is traveling and observing the Philippines from 1838 to 1942, Pampanga is the most beautiful and richest province of the Philippines and for this reason it is called the New Spain. Pampanga’s immense physical topography and geography in its pre-colonial history and even during the Spanish conquest nurtured its so-called culture and civilization. To be able to see the past but glorious history and culture of the province of Pampanga, a systematic archaeological excavation is a must.
This paper is a report of the analysis of the burials that were unearthed during the excavation of the Archaeological Studies Program of the University of the Philippines and of the Katipunan Archeologist ng Pilipinas, Inc. at Sitio Babo Balukbuk, Municipality of Porac, Pampanga.
It will focus on the analysis of the burials including the grave goods. The dating, origin and characteristics of these grave goods will be identified. Also, it will show and identify the significance of these burials and grave goods on the pre-Spanish history of Porac and of Pampanga as well. Specifically, it will explicate the essence of these burials on dating the site, ritual practices, social stratification and trading system in the area.

MENGONI, Luisa Elena (Institute of Archaeology, UCL, UK)
Body and dress ornaments in the funerary practices of SW China
Panel: Early Complex Societies in the Sichuan Basin and Surrounding Areas (Rowan FLAD)

The use of dress and body ornaments in the cemeteries of western Sichuan and north-western Yunnan dated between the Warring States (456-221 BCE) and the Han dynasty (206 BCE-221 CE) gives important indications about the social and ritual dimensions characterising the ancient communities of this area, especially in relation to gender, age and social roles. Despite revealing shared practices in the ways bodies are treated and adorned during funerary rituals in the region, the use of ornaments also shows distinct combinations of local and non-local attributes across sites. In some cases, the acquisition of non-local items suggests the existence of a larger regional network of exchange, and distinct modalities of status acquisition and display operated by high-rank individuals. In other sites, a strong local character is maintained in dress ornamentation, while other objects display both local and non-local attributes.

MERTZ, Mechtild (Nanjing Forestry University, France)
A historical and ecological study of the wood species used in the buildings of the 14th century Serkhang temple complex, a Tibetan monastery in Qinghai province, China
Panel: Identification, preservation and study of ancient wooden relics in East Asia (Takao ITOH and Mechtild MERTZ)

The Serkhang temple complex is a Tibetan monastery in Ngangla village, situated at the southern bank of the Yellow river in Jianzha county of Qinghai province. The monastery consists of 11 buildings, of which the oldest dates from the 14th and the latest from the beginning of the 20th century. The temple is presently being restored by the "Tibet Heritage Fund", which allowed us to take wood samples from four buildings for further investigation. Identifying the wood species will help to understand the choice of the wood material. By considering the physical and mechanical properties of the wood, it is possible to evaluate the choice of the material and the requirements for the construction. A change of the wood choice during the ages also may reflect changes of the natural environment.

MILLER, Bryan K (University of Pennsylvania, USA)
"Those Who Follow in Death": Accompanying Burials in Xiongnu Mortuary Practice
Panel: NN

Recent research within the field Xiongnu archaeology has focused on the elite mortuary complexes for the nomadic rulers and the accompanying burials which flank the large mounded tombs. Investigations of these satellite graves equate their presence to "those who follow in death" mentioned in the Han Chinese accounts of Xiongnu mortuary practice.  Drawing on several cemeteries in Mongolia and Buryatia, I will closely analyze the manner of interment for those buried in such graves, more critically address the issue of these supposed sacrificial burials, and address evidence of variation between sites in the Xiongnu practice of accompanying burials.

MIYAMOTO Kazuo (Kyushu University, Japan)
The spread of early rice agriculture from Shandong Peninsula to Korean Peninsula through the Liaodong Peninsula
Panel: NN

My hypothesis is that the spread of early agriculture of north-eastern Asia had three stages. The first stage is spread of millet agriculture from Manchuria to the southern Korea and to the southern Russian Far East at c. 3,300 BC. The second stage and the third stage are spread of the early rice agriculture from Shandong Peninsula to Korean Peninsula through the Liaodong Peninsula . In this paper I would explains the second stage at c. 2,400 BC and the third stage at c. 1,600 BC especially focused on the relationship between Shandong Peninsula and Liaodong Peninsula. This would be explained by the result of researches of rice paddy sites in Shandong Peninsula and by the analysis of stone tools between two peninsulas.

  MIYAMOTO Kazuo (Kyushu University, Japan)
Prehistoric interaction through Tsushima and Iki islands between the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese archipelago

Panel: Island Archaeology in East Asia – Interaction and Isolation (Barbara SEYOCK)

In Jomon period Chulmun pottery of southern Korea and Jomon pottery of Kyushu migrated mutually into Tsushima Island. This interaction firstly comprised people moving in search for fishing grounds and then changed to the trading of row materials between the two areas.
In Yayoi period the trading system through Tsushima and Iki islands developed and covered an increasingly wider area. In the latter half of the Yayoi period, not only southern Korean pottery but also Lelang pottery of Han dynasty is extant in Iki Island and northern Kyushu, thus reflecting the development of trading and, moreover, the beginning of diplomatic relations. With this paper I would explain the change of interaction between the two areas especially through the results of excavation at Karakami site in Iki Island.

MIZOGUCHI Koji (Kyushu University, Japan)
"Sensitizing" archaeology through proper theorization: a proposal
Panel: Public archaeology in the present and recent past in East Asia (Tim SCHADLA-HALL and Akira MATSUDA)

This paper examines the socio-historical setting in which Japanese archaeology as a communication system currently operates. The unique circumstance in which the modernisation of Japan took place has strongly influenced the trajectory through which Japanese archaeology has developed its discursive structure. One of its significant consequences is its anti-theorising tendency. This makes the system vulnerable to various types of stress such as external pressure to make analytical procedure as simple as possible whereby to make the narratives accessible to the general public. It undermines the health of archaeology as a socially responsible discipline in contemporary society which is confronted with difficulties generated by globalisation and deepening post-modern conditions. The paper proposes a tentative solution by illustrating how we can better incorporate the attitude of theorisation into Japanese archaeological communication as a devise to “sensitize” archaeology to contemporary society.

MOCHANOV, Yuri Alekseevich (Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Sakha Republic (Yakutia) Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Dyuktai bifacial tradition of Palaeolithic of Northeast Asia
Panel: NN

The report deals with the history of separation and investigation of Dyuktai bifacial tradition of Palaeolithic of Northeast Asia. It was defined in 1967 after discovery of Palaeolithic site in Dyuktai Cave in Aldan (59o18’N, 132o36’E). Before, bifacial tools have been considered non-characteristic for Palaeolithic of Northeast Asia. Several bifaces found in some Palaeolithic sites in Northeast Asia were explained by influx of various migrants from Europe (Merghard, 1923; Okladnikov, 1950; Muller-Beck, 1966).
Initially, existence of bifacial tradition was confirmed by Palaeolithic materials of Aldan and Kamchatka Ushki site (levels V and VI); subsequently, Palaeolithic assemblages with bifaces were found in various regions in North Asia. In Sartan (22,000-10,500 years ago) Dyuktai populations in North Asia mainly inhabited the areas to the east of Enisei. In Karginsky time (50,000-22,000 years ago), besides the east of North Asia, they lived in lines with unifacial cultures populations in Enisei river valley as well as to the west. One cannot exclude that in Karginsky Dyuktai people could contact populations of Streletsk-Sungir culture of Eastern Europe.
Nowadays, Palaeolithic assemblages with bifaces, besides North Asia, are found in Mongolia, North China, Corea, and Japan. They seem to represent various local cultures and variants of cultures of Dyuktai tradition. The tradition also includes various assemblages with bifaces and wedge-shaped cores in Alaska and adjacent regions of Canada. Dyuktai people hunted mammoths, wooly rhinoceros, musk ox, and other cold Pleistocene animals. Cold fauna and flora were initially formed in Northeast Asia areas free of ice. Here, in North Cold Pole area, formation of Dyuktai bifacial Palaeolithic tradition also took place.
Formation of Dyuktai bifacial Palaeolithic tradition in middle Lena River valley is evidenced by proto-Dyuktai middle Palaeolithic Mungkharyma site. That was found by S.A.Fedoseeva in 2000 in lower Viliuy (64oN, 123oE). It ages in the range of 150,000 to 70,000 before present. By technical typological features tool inventory of Mungkharyma closely resembles (especially by bifacial spear points and backed knife) implements of various cultures of bifacial European Moustier.

MOLODIN, Viacheslav and KOMISSAROV Sergai (Institute of Archaeology Ethnography of Siberian branch of RAN, Russia)
Xiaohe Culture of Xinjiang and its North Asian Affinities
Panel: NN

One of remarkable achivment of Chinese archaeology is rediscovery of Xiaohe culture in Lop Nor Region. Natural conservation of mummies’ graves with wooden, woollen, felt artifacts gives us the picture of developed society with complex rituals. But on the contrast to abandance of organic materials, nor sherds of ceramics, neither piece of metal were found. But namely these categories of objects are used in comparative studies. So it makes difficult to determine chronology as well as origin of Xiaohe Culture. Paper presents materials from early bronze age cultures of Northern and Central Asia to discuss the dates and direction of contacts.

MORISHITA Masaaki  (Sainsbury Institute for the Study of Japanese Arts and Cultures, Japan)
Filling Empty Museums: The Museum Boom in Post-war Japan and Its Aftermaths
Panel: NN

In this paper, I discuss the significance of the Hyogo Prefectural Museum of Archaeology that has just opened in November 2007 in the context of the development of regional, public museums in post-war Japan. Most museums in Japan were established during the museum boom in the last three decades of the twentieth century, and they developed such characteristics as ‘emptiness’ in spite of the increasing number of and interest in archaeological findings at the time of the rapid growth of Japanese economy. They were ‘empty’ because they had no substantial collection, employed only a few curators or none, could not secure the sufficient amount of public funding, and failed to attract visitors. The new museum represents an attempt to overcome such emptiness of its predecessors.

MUELLER, Shing (Institute for Sinology, Universität München, Germany)
The Murong burials in Liaoxi Area
Panel: Funerary Systems in Northeast Asia: The Formation and Development of Regional Cultures (Ariane PERRIN)

The Murong of the 4th century were the dominant group among the Xianbei of North and Northeast China. The parade armours for horses and the buyao-headgears have long been attributed to the Murong culture and are one of the most imposing archaeological features among the contemporaneous tribal peoples in China. This paper tries to define the Murong culture according to burial and written materials, to determine the indigenous Xianbei elements and external cultural influences which contributed to the moulding of the Murong culture, and to describe the process of its formation and legacies found in the later Xianbei culture.

MYAGMAR, Erdene (Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, National University of Mongolia Mongolia)
A cranial nonmetric study of archaeological and modern populations from Mongolia
Panel: Bioarchaeological research in East Asia (Ekaterina PECHENKINA)

A cranial sample consisting of 210 skulls from Mongolia, ranging from the Neolithic period to modern era, was investigated using nonmetric traits.  Frequencies of 19 traits of pooled-sex and skull incidences for each population were arcsine-transformed and subsequently used to calculate the MMD. Cluster analysis revealed two groups:  The first group consisted of early Iron and Bronze age populations of Mongolia being closely related, also joined by the sample from the Neolithic period.  The second group indicated the Xiongnu and Mongolian period samples were being close, with a subsequent link with modern Mongolians.

N

NAGATOMO, Tomoko (Chonbuk National University, Japan )
The relationship between Lelang 楽浪, the south of the Korean peninsula, northern Kyushu and Okinawa
Panel: Island Archaeology in East Asia – Interaction and Isolation (Barbara SEYOCK)

Many materials from Lelang were carried to the south of Korean peninsula and to the north of Kyushu through Iki and Tsushima islands, indicating that Lelang exchanged or negotiated with these areas after the Chinese commandery was set up in the Korean peninsula. We also know that this exchange was different by area and time. In my presentation I will attempt to show that Lelang culture affected the technology of pottery making in the south of Korea while the north of Kyushu merely imported material from Lelang. Okinawa Island, on the other hand, mainly received Lelang pottery for stock. I will compare these differences to discuss the variety of Lelang exchange by archaeological material analysis.

NAKAJIMA, Tsuneo (Lake Biwa Museum, Japan)
Prehistoric waterside landscape in East Asia: the usage and its changes of carp family fish resources
Panel: Prehistoric Landscape Shifts in the East Asian Inland Seas (UCHIYAMA Junzo, Hideyuki ONISHI, Ilona BAUSCH)

NAKAMURA, Daisuke (Korea University Institute for Archaeology and Environment, Korea)
Appearance of Jasper tubular beads and the trade development in the Far East
Panel: Prehistoric Landscape Shifts in the East Asian Inland Seas (UCHIYAMA Junzo, Hideyuki ONISHI, Ilona BAUSCH)

Jasper tubular beads are the common burial goods in Korean Bronze Age and Japanese Yayoi period. They are originated in Dongyi to Japanese archipelago via Korean peninsula. The origin places of many jasper-beads are specified using X-ray fluorescence and ESR analysis in Japan at present. However the place of origin and the workshop remains have not been found in Korea. Then we made it clear by the recent investigation that the jasper beads appeared at first in Korea and Japan have same elemental composition. Further, we showed that the circulation of jasper produced from Korean Peninsula reach beyond the radius 200km including Japanese archipelago.

NAKAMURA, Shin'ichi (University of Kanazawa, Japan)
The formation of urban landscape in the lower Yangtze area: considerations on the Liangzhu archaeological sites
Panel: Prehistoric Landscape Shifts in the East Asian Inland Seas (UCHIYAMA Junzo, Hideyuki ONISHI, Ilona BAUSCH)
 

NAKAYAMA, Seiji (Yamanashi Prefectural Museum)
The beginning of plant cultivation in the central Japan
Panel: New data and issues of archaeobotany in East Asia (Gary CRAWFORD, Hiroki OBATA, Zhijun ZHAO)

Central Japan is regarded as one of the main areas where the Jomon culture prospered. This is the reason why some archaeologists have advocated the existence of Jomon agriculture around this region in the middle Jomon period. The weakness of this theory was that it lacked direct evidence. However, recent discoveries of cultivated plant remains, such as beefsteak plants, millets, beans, bottle gourds and mustard family, indicate the existence of cultivation in the Jomon period.

NAKAZAWA, Michihiko (Nagano Prefectural Government, Japan)
Acceptance and diffusion of rice and barley in the Jomon society, Japan - New data and issues of archaeobotany in East Asia
Panel: New data and issues of archaeobotany in East Asia (Gary CRAWFORD, Hiroki OBATA, Zhijun ZHAO)

In general speaking the subsistence in Jomon, the Neolithic in Japan, is based on hunting, gathering, and fishing, while we often find grain impressions of cultivated cereals on the Final Jomon pottery, for example rice or barley. We make replicas pouring silicon resin in these impressions, observe them under the SEM, and identify the species that made the impressions. This paper discusses acceptance and diffusion of rice and barley in the Jomon society, based on the recent result of replication method collating the regional time gaps on the chronological table of the Jomon pottery all over the nation.

NELSON Sarah (USA)
Heritage Tourism in the Dongbei, Some Problems and Solutions
Panel: The past in contemporary China: new directions and challenges (Luisa MENGONI and Magnus FISKESJÖ)

This short presentation looks at two different ways that archaeology is connected to Heritage Tourism in the Dongbei. The first is that of Liaoning Province, and its relationship to the World Bank. Although there are many "sights" and sites that could attract tourists, the infrastructure for tourists has been slow to develop. The second concerns Jilin Province and Kaoguli/Koguryeo sites. In this case, issues of nationalism and security are prominent in hindering tourism. I will show some photos and discuss the different kinds of problems facing Liaoning and Jilin.

NELSON Sarah (USA)
Shamanism and Interregional Interaction in East Asia
Panel: Inter-regional interaction in East Asian Prehistory and History (Francis ALLARD)

Several archaeologists have proposed that shamanism was related to the formation of the state in China. Shamanism is known ethnographically from Siberia, the Dongbei, Korea, Japan. Okinawa and Taiwan. Is this an example of interregional interaction? How can the question be approached with archaeological materials?

NGUYEN Huong Thi Mai (Researcher, Vietnam)
Vegetation record at Dong Son archaeological site, Northern Vietnam
Panel: Vietnamese Archaeology (Le Lien THI)

Pollen and spore record at Dong Son core show that around 6,000yr BP. – 5,000yr BP. mangrove was dominant, mangrove gradually reduce after 5,000 years and disappear around 4,000 to 3,000 yr BP., It is indicate this area was a swamp at that time. These artifacts that found in this site are belongs to Dong Son culture date around 2.700 to 2000 yr BP. This evidence combine with data of other research is beginning to develop a picture of regional diverse environment and probably relationships between environment changes and culture.

NGUYEN Kim Dung (Institute of Archaeology Vietnam academy of social sciences, Vietnam)
Jade Earring from Sa Huynh culture: typology - technology and cultural speciality.
Panel: NN

Jade earrings are common excavated in many jar - burial sites of Sa Huynh culture in central Vietnam and were seen as most significant object forms at that time .They are dated back to be approximately 500 BC to AD 1st century, contemporary with the date of Dong Son culture in the north Vietnam. Recently, the author have analysed these objects from many archaeological collections in Viet Nam and tried to make more clear on their typology as well as their making technology. They were determined to be products locally but the jade source is uncertant. Archeologically, nephrite (jade) artifacts representated dating from 2000 BC through a early half of millennium AD in Viet Nam and South East Asia. The paper introduces these objects base on their typology and manufacturing technique in Viet nam and compare them to the other similarity objects discovered in South East Asia.

NGUYEN Quang Mie
The 14C dates and the fluctuations of ocean in the north east region of Vietnam
Panel: Vietnamese Archaeology (Le Lien THI)

Under the natural geographic angle, the Northeast maritime area of Vietnam and the Southeast maritime of China share the same ecological system. The prehistory of the region is directly related to the fluctuations of ocean and the exchange between cultural centers among the areas. This feature has significantly generated close cultural traits between two regions throughout the pre and pro-historical time. So far, there is a lot of the geological and archaeological investigations conducted in those areas, among them many strata were examined by radicarbon dating. Based on the radiocarbon dates under the investigation of geology and archaeology, the paper outlines the moving of sea levels and their influence on the regional cultures in prehistoric time.

NGUYEN Thu Anh (Researcher, Vietnam )
Ash-pits at Go Hoi site (Vinh Phuc province)
Panel: Vietnamese Archaeology (Le Lien THI)

In 2002 and 2003, the excavation at Go Hoi site (Vinh Phuc province) has unearthed 37 ash-pits in the area of more than 267sqm. From these pits, many pottery and stone artifacts have been collected, which represent the features of late period of the Phung Nguyen culture (3.500 - 3.100 BP). On basic of studying the data of the excavation, this paper aims at identifying the functions of these ash-pits and their significant in the study of Phung Nguyen culture in northern Vietnam.

NGUYEN Van Viet (Center for Southeast Asian Prehistory, Vietnam)
Early Chinese Contacts into Dongson Culture in Vietnam
Panel: NN

Paper presents early chinese objects (from Shang to Han ages) found in Vietnam, early Han inscriftions on Dongsonian objects and antropological evidences in order to looking for the North-South trade/immigration routes in late prehistory and proto-history in the chinese southern no state areas.

NISHIMOTO, Toyohiro (National Museum of Japanese History, Japan)
On domestication pig in Yayaoyi period, Japan
Panel: Methods and Issues in the Zooarchaeology of East Asia (YUAN Jing, Richard H. MEADOW)

The Japanese Neolithic includes both the Jomon and part of the Yayoi period. Rice cultivation began around 900 BCE in the Kitakyushu area of Japan. This was also the beginning of the Yayoi period. By about 350 BCE, in the Middle Yayoi period the Metal Age began with bronze and iron artifacts from the mainland.
In the Jomon period it is likely that wild pigs were raised for food, but truly, intentionally domesticated pigs were only present after the beginning of the Yayoi period and came to the Japanese islands with the dog and rice agriculture from the mainland. The morphological differences between the original wild pigs of the Japanese islands and the Yayoi domesticated pigs are that the backs of the skulls of Yayoi domesticated pigs are rounder, at the same time as mandibles grew shorter, the area where the mandible joins curved inward, the tusks grew smaller and the entire head became shorter. In addition, the jaws of Yayoi domestic pigs frequently show gum disease. The cut marks found on the bones of domestic pigs also show unique characteristics. The pigs introduced to Japan include both small and large types and the small type appears to be similar to the domestic pigs discovered at the Hemudu site. From Yayoi through the ancient period domestic pigs were raised, but then, after the ancient period under the influence of Buddhist prohibitions on eating meat, the custom of pig husbandry gradually disappeared.
 

NIWA Takafumi (Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Japan)
The appearance and development of Lostwax technique in ancient East Asia
Panel: New Insights into the archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age (Lothar von FALKENHAUSEN and Xu HONG)

Recently, it occurred argument with origins of Lostwax technique in ancient China. But, as far as I know, the bronze artifacts made by Lostwax technique were discovered in many parts of Ancient East Asia, like Nothern China, Korean peninsula, and Yunnan area. So this paper,at first the auther consider to the problem of appearance and development of Lostwax technique in ancient China, and discuss about appearabne of Lostwax technique in "periphery"areas.

NORTON, Christopher J. (Department of Anthropology, Hunter College CUNY, USA, USA)
Taphonomic Perspectives from Middle-Late Pleistocene Xujiayao, China
Panel: NN

At what point in time Plio-Pleistocene hominins became dominant members of the carnivore guild is a question critical for addressing many questions related to human evolutionary studies.  In order to begin addressing this question, we present the first taphonomic study from Xujiayao, a Middle-Late Pleistocene open-air site in the western Nihewan Basin, northern China. The Xujiayao faunal assemblage is dominated by Equus przewalskii remains.  Bone surface modification analysis of the equid midshaft limb bones indicates that a high percentage of cut marks and percussion marks are present, suggestive of efficient hominin predation.  A relatively low percentage of tooth marked midshafts, indicates that carnivore influence in the formation of the faunal assemblage was minimal.

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OBATA, Hiroki (Kumamoto University, Japan)
Utilization of Legumes in Jomon, Japan
Panel: New data and issues of archaeobotany in East Asia (Gary CRAWFORD, Hiroki OBATA, Zhijun ZHAO)

With the recent progress of a replication technique, we can now observe the details of impressions on pottery and can correctly identify the spices that made the impressions. And the new method for research, a whole examination of pottery pieces from Jomon sites brings a phenomenal success for discovering a lot of impressions of cultigens in the Late Jomon in Kyushu, Japan. As one of the successes many soybean impressions have been discovered from the Middle Jomon site in Kanto Province and the Late Jomon sites in Kyushu Province. As the result we can evaluate a domestication time of soybean dates back ca.5000 cal B.P. in Japan. In this paper we reconsider and discuss a cultivation of Legumes in Jomon based on the recent impression data and the previous discoveries of charred beans.

ODA Yuki (Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Japan)
The diffusion process of cremation practices in ancient East Asia: A case study between Korean peninsula and Japan
Panel: NN

This paper examines the genealogy of cremation practices in ancient Japan. It has been recognized that cremation was firstly adopted by the upper class in the Kinai district of central Japan in the transitional phase between the Kofun (mounded tomb) and Nara period. However, the genealogy and diffusion process of the cremation practices have not yet been sufficiently investigated. The author approached the issue by comparing with a type of urn and cremated tombs between Korean peninsula and Japan.

OKAZAKI Kenji (Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University, Laboratory of Anthropology, Japan)
Linear long bone growth before and after the beginning of wet-rice cultivation, Japan
Panel: Bioarchaeological research in East Asia (Ekaterina PECHENKINA)

In an effort to demonstrate how the change of living condition with beginning agriculture effected human body, the growth pattern of ancient people was investigated using subadult skeletons in Japan. In this presentation, we focus on growth suppression on limb length, which is well researched in North America. As a result, the decline of growth-attained degree was not observed from the Jomon to the Yayoi period, when wet-rice cultivation was diffused; on the contrary, the Yayoi people could have higher growth-attained degree than the Jomon people. This tendency is not parallel with the model for adapting agriculture reduced by the incidences on Native Americans.

OKSBJERG, Jane (SOAS, University of London; Ropponmatsu Campus, Kyushu University, UK)
NN
Panel: NN

 

OMURA Mari (Gangoji Institute for Research of Cultural Property, Japan)
Braids excavated from the Chu Cemetery at Baoshan, China
Panel: NN

This report deals with the archaic braiding techniques throughout excavated braids from Baoshan cemetery of the Chu State dating from 323 to 292 BC which is located in Jingmen city,. In China the oldest evidence until now of loop braiding is of the Earlier Han dynasty. From tomb 2, the best-preserved among the five tombs of Baoshan cemetery, some braids were excavated that had characteristics of loop-manipulated braids. There was also a part of harness with two separate layers and combined sometime by turning adjoining threads. This evidence suggests that a series of the Ch’ien chin lace from the Han Tomb No.1 at Ma-Wang-Tui were also made by this technique using two-color loops.

OTANI Kaoru (Chungbuk National University Museum, Korea)
The Microlithic Industry in Japanese Islands
Panel: NN

This paper discusses the human behavioral pattern of Late Paleolithic people in the microlithic industry. The microlithic industry was treated as technology of small flake production. Many kinds of typically cores were prepared to use raw materials effectively and it was moving between raw materials resource and artifact units at the sites. It seems that the various type of micro-cores and lithic assemblages means the differentiation of the microblade technology, tool production process and the microlithic industry. It is possible to reconstruct the structure of microlithic culture.

OXENHAM, Marc F. and Hirofumi Matsumura (Australian National University, Australia)
Health Experience in Cold Environments: Insights from Hokkaido, Japan
Panel: Bioarchaeological research in East Asia (Ekaterina PECHENKINA)

人类在寒带环境中所经历体验的健康状况:以日本北海道地区为例
This paper examines a range of palaeohealth variables in a sample of Okhotsk (n=37 individuals) and Jomon (n=60) human remains from Hokkaido, Japan. Explanations for relatively high levels of infectious disease in these hunter-gather communities operating in a subarctic environment are explored in the context of other palaeohealth indicators: physiological well-being and oral health. A broader comparative context, north American subarctic and arctic palaeohealth, provides a platform from which to investigate the aetiology, distribution and experience of infectious disease among cold
adapted peoples in the past.
本文针对日本北海道地区的鄂霍次克(n=37)与绳纹文化时期(n=60)的史前人骨遗骸进行一系列的健康程度检验与研究。藉由检验几个史前健康状况相关指标:包括体质状况及口腔健康情形等的结果,来对这些亚北极区狩猎采集社会中,出现高度传染疾病的现象进行讨论。接着延伸探讨范围至北美洲的亚北极区与北极区,与其它古代寒带地区的健康情形作比较,则提供了史前人类在低温适应的人体机制下,所面临的传染病病源、分布,及相关健康体验等相关研究的凭借。

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PAI Hyung Il (University of California, Santa Barbara, U.S.A., USA)
Advertising Japan’s "Ancient" Terrains: Imperialists' Nostalgia and Heritage Tourism in Colonial Korea
Panel: A Century of Preserving Archaeological Heritage in East Asia (PAI Hyung II)

This paper discusses the historical and cultural legacy of Pre-War Japanese state sponsored tourism and its impact on the classifications and promotions of Korea’s national treasures and monuments. As early as the 1920s, colorful guide-books、postcards, fold out maps, and travel pamphlets on Seoul, P’yongyang, Kyungju and Mt. Kumkang were being printed and distributed by the Colonial Governor General’s Office, Manchuria-Chosen Railway Co. as well as the international branches of the Japan Tourist Bureau. It will analyze how cultural preservations laws, excavations, and reconstructions projects continue to be influenced by state sponsored commodification of heritage targeted for both domestic as well as international visitors.

PAL J.N. (University of Allahabad, India)
First Farming Culture of the Middle Ganga PLAIn: in the Light of Recent Archaeological Investigations
Panel: NN

Archaeological investigations in the Gangetic plain, considered as cradle of the Indian culture, during the last four decades have brought to light a long cultural sequence from Epi-palaeilithi/Mesolithic to the historical period. Recent excavations at Jhusi and Hetapatti in western part of the middle Gangetic plain and sites like Lahuradeva, Waina, Bhunadih, Imlidih, Sohgaura (in Uttar Pradesh) and Chirand, Chechar Kutubpur, Maner, Taradih and Senuwar (in Bihar) in the central and eastern part of the area have shed valuable light on different aspects of this culture. The recent most excavations at Hetapatti, Jhusi and Lahuradeva in the plain and Tokwa in the Vindhyas have yielded new evidences to reconstruct the life of people of first farmers and cattle keepers. The evidences of crop varieties, domesticated animals and origin and antiquity of this culture are also significant.

PANG Rui (Institute of Archaeology, University College London, UK)
Cultural Heritage Management in China: a Case Study of the Han City of Chang’an
Panel: The past in contemporary China: new directions and challenges (Luisa MENGONI and Magnus FISKESJÖ)

Having a different political system and cultural tradition, China is developing its own models of cultural heritage management, particularly in aspects like awareness of cultural heritage, understanding of values, relationship between the state and the local communities, decision making system, and legislation. A fierce challenge is represented by the conflict between heritage preservation and the rapid economic growth and urban expansion. Taking the Han city of Chang’an as a case study, this paper explores the strengths and constrains of cultural heritage management in China. It also aims to contribute in developing a feasible model for future practice within the larger field of cultural heritage resource management in China.

PANG Rui (Institute of Archaeology, University College London, UK)
A Marginalised Community? Local Community and Public Archaeology in China
Panel: Public archaeology in the present and recent past in East Asia (Tim SCHADLA-HALL and Akira MATSUDA)

Public participation in archaeological activities or cultural heritage issues is normally seen as a way of giving voice to the interests of local communities, although the value of such participation has yet to be widely recognized in China. The paper will explore current community awareness and participation in archaeological issues under the centralised management that prevails in China. The case study of Han Chang’an will be used to show how local community can be involved in (or excluded from) the archaeological process in a ‘top-down’ system, and allows a review of the development of public archaeology in the country.

PANG Yani (Shaanxi Museum of History, China)
Archaeology and education in Chinese museums
Panel: The past in contemporary China: new directions and challenges (Luisa MENGONI and Magnus FISKESJÖ)

This paper will give an overview of how museum education was conceived and practised in China before the 1990s, and how a distinct tradition of museum education developed in the country. It will then discuss the development of new trends and practices in education activities within Chinese museums in recent years, and current debates about future directions and prospects in the context of a rapidly developing country.

PARK Jinsoo (Institute of Archaeology, University of London, UK)
The Archaeological representation at the National Museum of Korea as Power relation
Panel: Public archaeology in the present and recent past in East Asia (Tim SCHADLA-HALL and Akira MATSUDA)

The role of the national museum of Korea in attempting to shape the public’s understanding of the past is examined against the wider context of the role that museums play internationally in presenting particular approaches to the past. Since independence the nation’s history as displayed in national museum has tended to represent the views and narratives that are compatible with the government’s narration and policies. By attempting a critical analysis of the national museums displays and analysing the connection between archaeological interpretation and national history within the display, the author raises the questions about the ability of the museum to shift historiography and create particular understanding of what is important in the past.

PATEL, Ajita K. (Harvard University, Department of Anthropology, USA)
NN
Panel: Methods and Issues in the Zooarchaeology of East Asia (YUAN Jing, Richard H. MEADOW)

 

PECHENKINA, Ekaterina (Queens College, City University of New York USA)
Oral pathology at the rise of social complexity during Yangshao
Panel: Bioarchaeological research in East Asia (Ekaterina PECHENKINA)

Patterns of oral pathology and dental wear were examined in four human skeletal collections from Neolithic sites in northern China, two from Early Yangshao and two from Middle Yangshao. Independent archaeological findings suggest that similar subsistence practices were followed in all four communities. Nevertheless, we find considerable differences among these collections in the manifestations of oral health indicators, as well as the intensities and patterns of dental wear. We propose that this change in oral pathology during Yangshao was caused by factors other than the degree of reliance on millet agriculture, also reflecting considerable decrease of diversity of available foods and greater dependence on domesticated animals during Middle Yangshao, as well as the effects of local customs and individual habits, differences in food preparation techniques, and childhood foods.

PEI Shuwen (IVPP, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China)
A Preliminary Report On The Excavation Of The Pengjiahe Paleolithic Site In The Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (with Guan Ying, Gao Xing)
Panel: Palaeolithic Archaeology of East Asia (SHEN Chen and Gao XING)

The Pengjiahe Paleolithic site, buried in the third terrace of the right bank of the Hanshui River, is located in the Pengjiahe village, Tutai town, Danjiangkou City, Hubei province. The study, based on materials from the excavation, indicates that the Pengjiahe Paleolithic site is buried in situ. The stone tool assemblage of the site shows close tie with the Pebble Tool Industry (Main Industry) in South China. Geomorphological and chronological comparison among the sites in the Hanshui River valley indicates that the age of the site should be close to Middle Pleistocene, which places the Pengjiahe industry to the Lower Paleolithic in China.
The Hanshui River drainage area which Pengjiahe Paleolithic site situated in located in the south piedmont of East Qingling Orogenic Zone as well as the climatic transition zone between North and South China. It is also the important region for early hominids occupation, migration and cultural exchange during Pleistocene. The excavation of Pengjiahe site not only enrich the human occupation data in the Hanshui River drainage area, but also bear great significance in studying human occupation behaviors adapted to natural environment in the Middle Pleistocene. Therefore, it is affirmed that the coming excavation of Paleolithic site and Paleolithic research will give more evidence to the study of early human culture developing pattern, the cultural relationship between North and South China, as well as the early human migration and technique exchange between China and the west World in the Pleistocene.
 

PERONNET, Sophie (Paris IV-Sorbonne University, France)
Overview of Han artefacts in Southeast Asia with special reference to the recently excavated material from Khao Sam Kaeo in Southern Thailand
Panel: NN

Recent excavations in Khao Sam Kaeo, Southern Thailand, document new evidence for exchange between China and the Southeast Asian Countries in late centuries BC-early centuries AD. This paper examines different pieces of evidence such as metallic artefacts (bronze mirrors, arrow heads, axes, etc), ceramic, seals, tiles and ornaments, some unearthed from this site others from contemporary Southeast Asian sites, in particular in Thailand and Vietnam. This survey will enable us to draw inferences on the role of Han China in the development of early trans-asiatic exchange.

PERRIN, Ariane (UMR 8173 "China-Korea-Japan", EHESS-CNRS, France)
"From Liaodong to P'yongyang: The painted tombs at Chaoyang and Liaoyang, and their relationship with the Koguryo painted tombs"
Panel: Funerary Systems in Northeast Asia: The Formation and Development of Regional Cultures (Ariane PERRIN)

My paper will discuss two corpuses of tombs in Liaoning considered to have been the prototypes of the Koguryo tombs. It will compare the Yuantaizi tomb_ the only tomb displaying the image of the four cardinal animals in Northeast China, i.e. outside the Ji'an area_ with 35 tombs associated with Koguryo displaying a similar imagery and located further southeast in Ji'an and in P’yongyang area, North Korea. An analysis of the Liaoning tombs compared to the Koguryo will show whether their common and unique characteristics are the results of an "ethnic" affiliation, the geographical location or cultural borrowings, or a combination of these various elements.

PETERSON, Christian E. (Department of Anthropology University of Pittsburgh, USA)with LU Xueming and Robert D. DRENNAN
The Socioeconomic Organization of Hongshan Communities
Panel: Human Adaptation and Socio-Political Change in Northeast China with a Focus on the Chifeng Region (Gideon SHELACH, ZHANG Zhongpei)

Comparative analysis of household artifact assemblages from a Hongshan period central place community in the Chifeng region has documented modest differences in economic specialization, wealth, and prestige indicative of hierarchical social organization. Wealthier households tended to be among the community’s most specialized, but not among its most prestigious. Economic specialization thus appears to have been connected to wealth accumulation but not higher prestige during the Hongshan period in this region. More recent community-scale research in the Dongshanzui area of western Liaoning provides a means for assessing to what extent this socioeconomic structure is characteristic of other Hongshan communities outside Chifeng.

PHAM THI, Ninh (Institute of Archaeology, Vietnamese Academy for Social Sciences, Vietnam)
Dong Cuom - the Jar burials site of Sa Huynh Culture, dating from the early Iron Age of Central Vietnam
Panel: NN

Sa Huynh culture was known as large areas of Jar burials belonging to the early Iron Age, distributed centrally in the Sa Huynh area, and scattered in some provinces in the Central and Southern Vietnam. The outstanding characteristic features of Sa Huynh culture were Jar burials and funeral gifts of stone or glass beads, as well as Iron and pottery artifacts. There are 3 kinds of burials and rituals of the ancient inhabitants of Sa Huynh culture, including Jar burials (the most popular type), mount- to - mount vertical pot burials and extended burials. The kinds of Jar and extended burials are normally primary burials of adults while mount - to - mount vertical pot burials are secondary burials of children. By studying burial and funeral gifts, it enables us to be aware of the material and spiritual culture characteristics of the ancient inhabitants of Sa Huynh culture existing from the 5th century BC to the 1st century - 2nd century AD.
Dong Cuom site is a Jar burials site belonging to Sa Huynh culture. In 1934, this site was excavated first time by French Scholar named M. Colani. In 2003, Institute of Archaeology and National Museum of Vietnamese History were carried out the second excavation in this site. This paper will introduce the sutdy resuls from the second excavation of Dong Cuom Jar burials site.
 

PISKAREVA, Yana Evgenevna (Russian Academy of Science Far East Branch Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East of Russia, Russia)
Local-chronological groups of mohe’s culture in Primorye region, Russian Far East.
Panel: NN

The subject considered in this article is local-chronological groups of mohe’s culture in Primorye region. Only one point of view on mohe culture in Primorye existed in Russian Far East archaeology: three local-chronological groups (blagoslovenninskaya, naifeldskaya, troitskaya) were defined by analogy with Priamurye region. New material was accumulated during last decade as a result of investigations new sites. Idea of three mohe culture’s groups in Primorye don’t allow to explain variety of mohe’s ceramic of  this region. Author determines four groups of sites V-VII A.D., two groups  of sites VIII-X A.D. and one group of sites X–XI A.D., as a result of detailed analysis of mohe’s ceramic. Author supposes that these groups reflect process of settling of some mohe’s tribes.

POPOV, Alexsander and TABAREV, Andrei (Far Eastern National University, Russia)
Landscape shift and Neolithic remains of south-western Primorye in the middle Holocene
Panel: Prehistoric Landscape Shifts in the East Asian Inland Seas (UCHIYAMA Junzo, Hideyuki ONISHI, Ilona BAUSCH)

Archaeological remains in Primorye, Russia suggest a shift from a maritime-oriented landscape to an inland-oriented one during the period of the Middle Neolithic (7,000 to 5,000 BP). Close investigation has revealed that many kinds of new technology were adopted to expand the range of developing resources according to this change. In spite of the general tendency to attribute landscape shifts to either environmental changes or spontaneous causes created in local communities, this process seemed to have also occurred through intercultural interactions such as migration and trading activities.

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QIAN Yihui (Capital Normal University, China)
The lithic Analysis of the Chinese Bronze Age and the rethinking of its character __A case study of stone tools' production technique and use pattern of Daxinzhuang site, Shang Dynasty
Panel: New Insights into the archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age (Lothar von FALKENHAUSEN and Xu HONG)

From the late paleolithic period to Zhou Dynasty, the ground stone tools operated its relate reaction in the different periods. Production System of ground stone tools is the relate systematic process. In the research, we should have this thought. We can mainly research its classification, production technique, consumption, function, resource, debitage and cognization archaeology etc.by stone technique typology, quantitative analysis, microwear analysis, spatial distribution analysis, experimental archaeology, resource analysis etc. Production and use are the two basic parts of stone production system. By the observation of ground stone tools' modality of different phases of production and use, including the research of pre-molding and debitage, we can get the comprehensive production and use information. We should not only think of stone tools production, but pay more attention to its production relation. Thus we can know how to organize the stone production and its social production relationship. Based on this, we can do the deep research on politics, economy, trade, religion and settlement etc. We will have the conversion and advance in the research level of lithic analysis.
By the research practice of ground stone tools excavated from Daxinzhuang site of historical period in the guidance of north American lithic theory and method, we have got much information about Shang Dynasty's Daxinzhuang stone production technique, use pattern and its economic configuration than before. So in China, it's necessary and feasible to continue this research on lithic analysis of the Chinese Bronze Age. Not it extends the research scope of historical period, but will make for rethinking of the character of the Chinese Bronze Age.

QIN Xiaoli (China)
Japan scholar's archaeology investigation in Shanxi Province during the period of when Japan invaded China
Panel: NN

During the period of when Japan invaded China, Japan's archaeologists investigated and excavated almost all archaeology sites of Shanxi province. These archaeology materials had been moved to Japan after the Second World War. Except a few important sites, the majority of materials have not made any reorganization and publication until now.From 2003 to 2005, when I was a Postdoctoral Fellowship of JSPS, I took part in a research project chaired by Professor Hidenori Okamura from Kyoto University. We reorganized 15 archaeology sites of north Shanxi province. Using this opportunity, I analyzed all archaeology materials came from over 100 different sites of Shanxi province that held in Japan. This article intends to make a comprehensive summary and archaeological history appraisal for these materials, and announces the materials that slept more than 60 years to the public, for everybody to refer and research.

QIN Xiaoli (China)
The Basic Research of Bracelet Ornament
Panel: Comparative Study of Early Complex Societies in East Asia and the World (LIU Liu and CHEN Xingcan)

A great number of bracelet ornaments, dating from the early Neolithic to Yinxu period had been unearthed from many locations in China. However, beside the limited research related the jade bracelet, there are only few papers about the ceramic, stone, bone, and clam material bracelets. Especially the comprehensive study of various material bracelets from the ornament view is in shortage. This article will provide a basic comprehensive study for it. I will analyze the unearthed bracelet from different ways, such as, the material, shape and size, unearthed situation, the body part where it was wear, the percentage of bracelet in total unearthed ornament in each sites, and the distributed characteristic in different area. My goal is to understand the distribution and the tendency of large amount Neolithic bracelet, the bracelet function, the customs of that era and the ancient people's aesthetic standard.
环状装饰品的基础研究
秦小丽
从新石器文化早期到殷墟时代,中国各地发掘出土了大量的各种材质的环状装饰品,其中除玉石环有所研究之外,陶质、石质、骨质及蚌质环饰却鲜有研究论文的发表,更缺乏从装饰品的角度对各种材质环饰的综合性研究。本文将从材质、形态分类、环内外径大小、出土性质、佩带状况、环饰所占各个遗址装饰品总数的比例及其在各个地区的分布特点等多个方面,对适合佩带于手腕部和臂部的各种材料的环状装饰品进行综合分析与研究,以期探讨新石器时代以来大量出土环状装饰品的地域间分布及动态、环饰的功能、佩带习俗及古代人们的审美观.

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RAWSON, Jessica Mary (Merton College, Oxford University, UK)
Interactions between China and Inner Asia 950 – 650 BC
Panel: NN

Recent archaeological finds from the Zhouyuan and tombs of the Jin, Guo, Ying and Qin States have revealed that the Chinese speaking people borrowed many features from their neighbours in Mongolia and Siberia. The paper will Illustrate these borrowings and discuss the ways in which burial paraphernalia and ritual vessels were transformed by these contacts.

ROLETT, Barry (University of Hawaii, USA)
The Beginning of Seafaring in South China
Panel: Prehistoric Archaeology of South China and Southeast Asia (FU Xianguo, LU Lie Dan, LI Guo)

Seafaring in south China may have begun as an adaptation to environmental change. One change was in sea-level, which rose around 40 m from 10,000 to 6000 BP. Rising sea-level transformed the coastline during the time when rice agriculture and a Neolithic lifestyle became established. Part of the coastal plain was flooded, turning low-lying land into mud flats and shallow lagoons. Deforestation and increases in the intensity of the monsoon cycle also may have stimulated the development of Neolithic seafaring. This paper examines the maritime adaptation hypothesis as a model for understanding the emergence of seafaring in southeast China.

RÖSCH, Petra (Heidelberg University, Germany)
Eternal veneration, perpetual practice: The assemblies of 35 and 53 Buddha images in Chinese Buddhist cave temples (6th to 8th century)
Panel: NN

Certain groups of Buddhanames and texts of confession are engraved on the walls of Buddhist cave-temples in 6th to 8th century China. The names of the Buddhas sometimes accompany small images of the Buddha or stand alone as inscribed aniconic texts, replacing the images. Confession rituals, in which Buddhanames are chanted are known in texts from the earliest times of Buddhism in China. In material culture we have evidence for the confession in the presence of Thousands of Buddha images in Dunhuang manuscripts and cave-temples since the 5th to 6th century. The appearance of evidences of confession rituals invoking certain numbers of Buddhas seem to have surfaced at cave-temples in Northern Central China due to the concept of the Final Age of the Dharma (mofa). Mofa according to some calculations started in the middle of the 6th century and the need for preserving the rituals and the texts in a permanent material triggered the engravings.
The confession rituals evidenced at cave-temples -as described in hand-books or texts of liturgy like the „The method of confessing and vowing during 6 times day and night“ (Zhouye liushi chanhui fayuanfa 晝夜六時懺悔法願法) of Xinxing-, had to take place for several days 6 times each day. Each time after purification, a certain number of Buddhanames, like the 53 Buddhanames had to be chanted for example in the early and late morning etc., while a text of confession had to be recited. The actual practice of these confession rituals of the 6th to 8th century has not been convincingly unveiled so far. However the close description and analysis of the material evidence points to changes of the ritual liturgy and to changes in the religious context of the confession rituals. It thus adds to our knowledge about those historic rituals of confession and explains their development leading up to the present day ritual practice.

RYBIN, Eugeny P. (Institute of Archaeology Ethnography Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia, Russia)
Early Upper Paleolithic of Central Asia: View from Mongolia
Panel: NN

Recent discoveries in the Central Asia recognized a significance of that region among the core areas of initial Upper Paleolithic emergence. Earliest evidences of blade-based Upper Paleolithic industries are associated with the Russian Altai where a series of excavated sites dated about 45-43 kya provide the ground for strict comparison with contemporaneous assemblages from western part of Eurasia. Clear trend of spatial and temporal transgression in expansion of the  Upper Paleolithic industries (probably associated with the migratory routes of anatomically modern humans) is illustrated by appearance (about 40 kya) of blade-based industries in the Baikal region. Distinct group of sites (dated ca. 35-28 kya) in the territory of modern Mongolia and Ordos (Shuidonggou) marks the easternmost extent in the distribution of "West Eurasian" type of Early Upper Paleolithic. The paper using newly available data, discusses the nature of Early Upper Paleolithic of Mongolia and its interactions with the surrounding regions of the Central Asia.

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SAIKIA, Shabeena Yasmin (Omeo Kumar Das Institute Of Social Change And Development, Guwahati, India)
Silk Route: The Ancient Trading Links Between India's North East and South East Asia
Panel: NN

India’s initiative to reviving the ancient trade route – silk route- has invoked interest in the north-eastern part of India. The southern part of ancient route which is sometimes referred to as the ancient tea route crossing the high mountains of India’s north east travels west along the mighty river Brahmaputra. The secondary sources reveals that it was the only route connecting the mainland India and the North east or the gateway to the South East Asia through India. Trading between the mainlands India with the Far East was done through this southern route and the north east India provided a buffer zone. The Chinese traveller Xuan Zhuang travelled Kamrupa kingdom in the 7th century - the present northeast of India in search of Buddhist manuscript through this route from the west. The present paper attempts to estimate the nature and volume of trading done between south east Asia and India’s North east and also with China and identify the possible trade route.

SAKASHITA, Takanori (Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan, Japan)
Re-examination of a Palaeolithic Dwelling Site in Japan
Panel: NN

Identified as thermal alteration on obsidian using experimental criteria, it was found that the thermal alteration on palaeolithic obsidian were not only concentrated on hearths, but also part of the suggested pillar holes in a palaeolithic dwelling site. The results indicate that part of the pillar holes were functioned as real hearths. In addition to spatial analysis of macrodebitage, it seems reasonable to interpret that the people knapped around southeast of two hearths in a pebble-surrounded habitation structure.

SARMA, Dhritiman (Gauhati University, India)
Khasi Megaliths
Panel: NN

Megaliths play an important role in Archeology and so the case of Khasi Megaliths that means the megaliths lying throughout the state of Meghalaya is also not an exception to the rule. Although geographically and politically, the Northeast India is a part of the Republic of India, yet prehistorically, this region has similarity with Southeast Asia. The largest Megalith of Asia is found in Nartiang , Meghalaya . In this paper, a close affiliation between the cultural links in terms of megaliths has been shown.  How Northeast India shares common customs with Southeast Asia is also seen throughout this paper. On the basis of this paper , it is expected to get some new and old ideas , which might be called as a connecting link between the two zones , Southeast Asia and Northeast India and although they are now politically two zones , yet their soul remains the same.

SCHADLA-HALL, Tim (Institute of Archaeology, University College London, UK)
Archaeology and economics
Panel: Public archaeology in the present and recent past in East Asia (Tim SCHADLA-HALL and Akira MATSUDA)

One of the chief attractions for the growing international tourist industry is the display and presentation of national and local pasts that demonstrate the richness of Asian Archaeology – indeed the attraction of sites such as the Terra Cotta warriors, or the newly opened Han Yanling museums, form a basis for boosting both local, national and international economies, as well as providing a basis for promoting national histories. This paper will examine the benefits and also the downsides for archaeologists in developing the past for the tourist industry and examine some of its effects on the wider world as well as questioning whether archaeologists receive adequate or appropriate rewards.

SERGUSHEVA, Elena (Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of Far Eastern Branch of Russia Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, RUSSIA, Russia)
Appearance and dynamics of agriculture on Primorye territory in period ca 5000–2400 BP
Panel: NN

The paper concerns the questions of time of agriculture appearance on Primorye territory and its subsequent dynamics right up to 2400 BP. This questions are solved with using of the up-to-date archaeobotanical and archaeological data.
According these data the agriculture had appeared on Primorye with new population from Dunbay about 4700 BP (or even early – 5200 BP). It developed (evolved) gradually and was in relation from climate changes and migration process. The agriculture was of little importance in subsistent system of populations of Primorye during the late Neolith and was rapidly growing in more importance for the end of this period and beginning of palaeometal age.

SEYOCK, Barbara (Munich University (Germany) Dep. of Asian Studies Institute of Chinese Studies, Germany)
Cheju Island as a case study in ancient island-mainland interaction
Panel: Island Archaeology in East Asia – Interaction and Isolation (Barbara SEYOCK)

Owing to its remote location off the south Korean coast, Cheju Island appears cut off from the main streams of cultural progress in prehistoric East Asia. Iron Age archaeological sites nevertheless reveal not only characteristic local features, unseen in peninsular complexes. Elements from abroad at the same time echo an exchange network that reaches as far as the Japanese archipelago and the Chinese mainland as well. Cheju Island thus opens a means of understanding the selectiveness and the distinctive development of peripheral island culture and thus functions as a case study in ancient island-mainland interaction here.

SHELACH, Gideon (The Hebrew University, Israel)
Desert or Steppe Highway? East-West interactions during the Late Second and Early First Millennia BCE and their Local Effects
Panel: Inter-regional interaction in East Asian Prehistory and History (Francis ALLARD)

It is often assumed that pre-historic interactions between societies in present-day China and their counterparts in Central and Western Eurasia went through the Xinjiang-Gansu region. However, recent discoveries suggest that another important route of communication went through the steppe area and enter China from the northeast. This paper examines evidence for such route and discusses the nature of the contacts that took place. Rather than arguing for the primacy of this or other routes of interactions it focuses on the impact such interactions had on the local societies during the late second and first half of the first millennia BCE.

SHEN, Chen (Royal Ontario Museum, Canada)
Technological Variability during the Transitions to the Upper Palaeolithic in Northern China
Panel: Palaeolithic Archaeology of East Asia (SHEN Chen and Gao XING)

This study is to review recent studies of Palaeolithic technology during the trasitions to the Upper Palaeolithic in northern China. Using data from archaeological sites in the Nihewan basin, the Luonan Basin, and the Shandong Peninsula, the paper examines closely lithic industries the Middle to Late Pleistocene period. With updated research results in regional chronologies and lithic data, especially from a period between 100 ka – 50 ka, this study is to draw working hypotheses of transitions in Upper Palaeolithic technologies in northern China to further understand the changes in human behaviours that were adapted to different environmental settings and climatic changes.

SHODA Shinya (by SHODA Shinya, OH Seung-hwan, HAN Ji-sun, PARK Gyeong-sin, JONG Jong-tae, LEE Hyun-sook, HEO Jin-a, JUNG Su-ok (Graduate school of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo Japan)
A History of Cooking pottery and food preparation features in Korean Peninsula)
Panel: NN

In the Korean Peninsula, pottery production began at the beginning of Neolithic Period. Cooking vessels have been used since that time along with various food preparation features such as open hearths or furnaces. The form of cooking vessels is regulated by the structural circumstances of food preparation features. Therefore, in this paper we can trace diachronic transitions in cooking style by investigating both cooking vessels and food preparation features. We reveal broad diachronic trends in cooking styles through changes in pottery. Specifically, we investigate typological aspects of archaeological features and cooking ware, as well as use-ware analysis of cooking vessels.

SLEPTSOV, Igor (Russian Academy of Science. Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, Russia)
The Dwellings of Final Neolithic in Primorye Region Based on Margaritovskaya Archaeological Culture
Panel: NN

This actual report on final Neolithic discusses one of the most debating subjects in archaeology of Russian Far East. Using the latest data, it was discovered that Margaritovskaya culture positioned itself as the final epoch of Neolithic in Primorye. The report is based on the analysis of a number of sites of east coast of Primorye. The following aspects are taken in consideration: 1.the accommodating methods of these settlements on the landscape; 2.the structure of the settlements; 3.the types of dwellings and their planigraphy; 4. the distribution of artifacts on and between the dwellings’ territories.

SMITH, Adam (UCLA Institute of Archaeology, USA)
Scribal training activities at Anyang during the reigns of Kang Ding and Lin Xin.
Panel: New Insights into the archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age (Lothar von FALKENHAUSEN and Xu HONG)

The so-called daliankeng (大連坑) was excavated during the third season of formal excavations at Anyang, and yielded a large number of divination records belonging to the He Group (何組卜辭).  In addition to these, many examples of the output of scribal trainees can be identified.  Trainees were acquiring the rudiments of literacy by means of the sight-copying of divination records and model texts produced by contemporary He Group scribes.  Copying exercises were typically written on scapulae that had previously been used in divination and which bore records of those divinations.

SOVANNARA, Sok Keo (NARA National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Siem Reap, Cambodia, Cambodia)
Recent Investigation of Burial Practice in North-West Cambodia — Iron Age Cemetery Site of Krasang Thmei Village
Panel: Funerary Systems in Northeast Asia: The Formation and Development of Regional Cultures (Ariane PERRIN)

From 2000, many archaeological sites were accidentally found in north-west of Cambodia, by the local activities and public constructions. Most of these sites are cemetery sites, which dated back to Iron Age in Cambodia (around 100BC to 300AD). But unfortunately, these sites were later illegally looted and destroyed seriously by the locals and merchants. Among these sites, Krasang Thmei village, located in Chub Vari commune, Prah Net Prah district, Banteay Meanchheay province, about 80km in the north-west of Angkor Wat temple, was also found during the construction activity of a new road in the village. Later, the site was illegally looted and destroyed by the local villagers.
At the same time, some archaeological researches and excavations had been done to collect crucial data for understanding the dates and events concerning with the site. Some information of human burial practice was also studied and compared with other Pre-historic sites. The site of Krasang Thmei village was excavated two times (in 2003 and 2004) and about ten human burials were found buried accompanying by many kinds of grave goods and animal bones. Two types of human burials were observed and classified basing on the positions and burial goods.
First conclusion of the dates of this site, depending on the result of radiocarbon dating on human bones indicated the site was occupied between 1st BC to 4th AD. But with the remains of stone tools and some Angkor ceramic fragments on site, it can be emphasized that the site could be probably occupied since the Stone Age period till the Angkor period and up to the present day.

STONE, Peter (International Centre for Cultural and Heritage Studies, Newcastle University, UK)
Public archaeology in a global context
Panel: Public archaeology in the present and recent past in East Asia (Tim SCHADLA-HALL and Akira MATSUDA)

The concept of ‘public archaeology’ has been with us for some thirty years or more. The term itself is perhaps more recent and its meaning is still being refined and clarified. It is certainly not a term that is used with uniformity around the world. It is almost certainly true that many archaeologists carry out activities that could be described as ‘public archaeology’ – without even being aware of the term. This paper will explore the multiple meanings of public archaeology and will address why it is a fundamental cornerstone of the discipline as we move into the 21st Century.

SUGIYAMA Cohe, TAKANO Mitsuyuki, TAKEUCHI Kazuhiko, IKEYA Nobuyuki, NARUMI Oshizawa, NIIHORI Kenji, YONEDA Minoru, KUROZUMI Taiji, UEDA Yuki, SAITO Koichiro
"KOKOMA"in Miyake-jima (Japan),where did they come from?, what were they doing there?, why did they leave?
Poster Presentation

"KOKOMA" is the site of the Middle-YAYOI period, which located in Miyake-jima volcanic island (Japan) far from Tokyo about 180km. We investigated it by the interdisciplinary approach .From the archaeological and volcanological studies, the period of habitation in "KOKOMA" was the very short. Therefore following questions occur.
"Where did you come from?", "What were they doing there?", and "Why did you leave?"
By the analysis of typology of pottery, we revealed that they had come from the east area of Tokyo-Bay. In second, they had made the shell Bracelet and collected the obsidian for the exchange. Finally, their abundance of the village caused by the attack of the mud-flow after terrible eruption.

SUGIYAMA Cohe (The University of Tokyo)
The spatial distribution change of obsidians from Kozu-shima, Japan in YAYOI period
Panel: Island Archaeology in East Asia – Interaction and Isolation (Barbara SEYOCK)

There’re many Jomon villages in Izu volcanic islands. It’s thought it was the residence for acquisition of the obsidian which was produced in Kozu-shima. The village ("Osato Higashi site" and "Boda site") in Miyake-shima is thought engaged to the monopolistic circulation of the obsidian in the Middle-YAYOI period. Boda site was coverd by the volcanic ejecta. For changing the environment in Miyake-jima by small-scale continual eruption in the Middle-YAYOI period at the Middle Izu ilands, the people in Miyake -Jima gave up the residence. And the circulation quantity of the obsidian decreased as a result. (This work was supported by The Mitsubishi Foundation.)

SUN, Tak-wing, Kevin (Antiquities and Monuments Office, Hong Kong)
The unclaimed luggage: who own Hong Kong’s archaeological heritage?
Panel: Public archaeology in the present and recent past in East Asia (Tim SCHADLA-HALL and Akira MATSUDA)

Hong Kong was once a British colony in Southeast Asia, previously described as the borrowed time and borrowed place. According to the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), Hong Kong’s legal and administrative systems remain unchanged after the handover in 1997. Under the principle of “one country and two systems”, the China’s law on protection of Cultural relics is not applicable to the HKSAR. Before the colonial period, Hong Kong was merely a marginal place in China. Under the colonial rule of about 150 years, the Sung Wong Toi Reservation Ordinance was implemented in 1899 and repealed after the Second War World. Enacted in 1976, the Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance is still enforced after the handover. This paper will examine how archaeological heritage to be defined by analyzing the development of legal framework and administrative policy, and discuss the cultural identity issue arising from the urbanization or urban renewal process in a city mainly formed by immigrants.

SUN Zhouyong (Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology, China)
Social Status Of Craftsmen Baigong In The Western Zhou Dynasty(1046-771BC)China: An Archaeological Perspective
Panel: New Insights into the archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age (Lothar von FALKENHAUSEN and Xu HONG)

This paper integrates the archaeological analysis with historical studies to demonstrate the social status of craftsmen baigong 百工in the Western Zhou through a case study of craftsmen burials at the Qijia jue玦-earring workshop in the predynastic capital site Zhouyuan, central western China. Baigong, which literally means hundred kinds of craftsmen, refers to various craftsmen in the craft production. It emphasises the large number of craft divisions, but does not describe the elaborate categories of craft activities or the detailed categories of craft tasks. This study challenges the traditional argument that craftsmen baigong were of slaves in the Bronze Age China. It is not simply a combination of conclusions that have already been drawn by historians and archaeologists in their own disciplines, but provides a new understanding to the research questions by a re-examination of the archaeological data from the Qijia workshop and the evidence from written texts and bronze inscriptions.

SVENSSON, Marina (Center for East and Southeast Asian Studies, Lund University)
Ancestral halls as spaces of living culture and heritage
Panel: The past in contemporary China: new directions and challenges (Luisa MENGONI and Magnus FISKESJÖ)

Ancestral halls are the most central and architecturally magnificent buildings in many Chinese villages, embodying both family and place-based identities. After 1949, ancestral halls were either demolished or appropriated for official use, becoming schools, assembly halls, government offices, granaries, or cowsheds. The religious objects were destroyed, desecrated, and replaced with revolutionary slogans and symbols. The more relaxed official cultural and ideological policy in the early 1980s, and greater prosperity, encouraged villagers to reclaim, renovate, and rebuild their ancestral halls in provinces such as Fujian and Zhejiang. In those years, Cultural Relics bureaus did not regard these buildings as monuments of national significance. Following the recent booming of rural heritage tourism, ancestral halls and traditional villages have been listed and reinterpreted as local and national level protected sites. They have lost their original function as sites of embodied memory for the local community, and become disembodied tourist sites, mainly valued for their architectural qualities. Ancestral ceremonies, if still conducted, are staged for tourists or revived for this purpose. This paper explores the tension between living cultures and heritage preservation examining some villages in Zhejiang province.

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TACON, Paul S.C. (Griffith University, Queensland, Australia, Australia)
An Asian Perspective on the Origins of So-called ‘Modern Human Behaviour’
Panel: NN

The development of so-called modern human behaviour is a hotly contested but highly significant focal point in debates about the rise and spread of modern humans.  To date Africa-centric and Europe-centric views have dominated discussion.  In this paper the role of Asia, especially north, central and east Asia, is critically examined after an exhaustive review of published and unpublished reports.   It is concluded that many of the hallmarks of modern human behaviour that can be archaeologically discerned actually can be found in Asia, far beyond the Levant area, at the same time or earlier than in other parts of the world.   It also is proposed that a number of distinct cultural groups existed well over 40,000 years ago and that contemporary humanity has inherited from them all.

TAKAMIYA Hiroto (Sapporo University, Japan)
Long Distance Exchange and Food Stress in the Prehistory of Okinawa, Japan
Panel: Prehistoric Landscape Shifts in the East Asian Inland Seas (UCHIYAMA Junzo, Hideyuki ONISHI, Ilona BAUSCH)

TAKAMIYA Hiroto (Sapporo University, Japan)
Long Distance Exchange and Food Stress in the Prehistory of Okinawa, Japan
Panel: Island Archaeology in East Asia – Interaction and Isolation (Barbara SEYOCK)

The Okinawa archipelago is located approximately 600 km south from Kyushu island, one of the major main islands in Japan. During the Early Yayoi-Heian period, the islanders conducted long distance exchange, known as Kai no Michi (the Shell Road), with mainland Yayoi chiefdom societies. The latter wanted these shells to manufacture bracelets as symbols of status. On the other hand, it is not clearly understood as to why the Okinawan people got involved in the exchange system. The paper will attempt to understand why the islanders conducted the long distance exchange with the Yayoi people.

TAKASAE, Katsunori (Meiji University, Japan)
Archaeobotany of Barnyard Millet (Echinochloa) in the Jomon Period
Panel: New data and issues of archaeobotany in East Asia (Gary CRAWFORD, Hiroki OBATA, Zhijun ZHAO)

In the Japanese Islands, archaeological remains indicating utilization of barnyard millet (Echinochloa) in the Jomon Period have been increased from 1970s. Today, it is possible to trace the change from Echinochloa cruss-galli to Echinochloa utilis and recent AMS dating shows that the beginning of use of them is older than 4000 calBP. It is reliable that northern Japan is one of the regions where old utilization of Echinochloa can be seen. However, it is still difficult to estimate the origin of its domestication. This paper discusses current issues of archaeobotany of Echinochloa based on specimens from Jomon sites.

TANTRAKARN, Kriengkamol (Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo University of Science, Japan)
No-touch, onsite glass analysis and the promise of portable X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)
Panel: The contribution of glass study to East Asian archaeology (James LANKTON, Phyllis LIN)

This paper presents a use of the newly developed portable-type X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) for an onsite non-destructive glass analysis and compares its results to those obtained from Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and other non-portable X-ray fluorescence data. The sample was a group of the 8th to 9th century glass vessel fragments, glass beads and associated lumps of raw glass recovered during excavation on several sites in Southern Thailand. The glass type and source material of alkali were estimated. The potential applications of the portable XRF to the field of archaeology will be discussed.

TAWARA Kanji (Institute for Foreign Studies, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Japan)
Tsushima as 'boundary'
Panel: Island Archaeology in East Asia – Interaction and Isolation (Barbara SEYOCK)

Examining the internal and external history of the channel that separates Japan and Korea, Tsushima Island (Japan) holds a characteristic position. After almost 140 years have passed since the formation of nation states in modern East Asia, Tsushima still seems to be recognized as ‘boundary’. However, recent publications stress that in spite of the changed appearance of Tsushima in modern ages, and despite the paradigms of Japanese archaeology, from a social and economic history perspective there has been a close relationship between peninsular and archipelago cultures. On the basis of specific archaeological data, therefore, the ‘boundary’ nature of Tsushima has to be reconsidered.

TENG Mingyu (Jinlin University, China)
Settlement Patterns of the Pre-Qin periods in the Bangzhijian River valley
Panel: Human Adaptation and Socio-Political Change in Northeast China with a Focus on the Chifeng Region (Gideon SHELACH, ZHANG Zhongpei)

TOIZUMI, Takeji (Institute of comparative archaeology, Waseda University)
Utilization of aquatic resources at the San’nai Maruyama site - Palaeoecology of the early Jomon period at the northern end of Honshu, Japan
Panel: Methods and Issues in the Zooarchaeology of East Asia (YUAN Jing, Richard H. MEADOW)

Plenty of fish and molluscan remains were recovered from the early Jomon horizons (ca.5900-5700 cal BP) of the San’nai Maruyama site, northern Honshu. The abundance of remains represents their economic importance in diet. Characteristics of fisheries of the site such as diversity of exploited resources, extensive catchment area composed of various environments, year-round schedule of activities and complexity of the fishing technologies suggest that San’nai Maruyama people had more advanced fishing technologies and knowledge on the ecology of aquatic resources and environments of the fishing grounds than previously believed.

TOKUDOME Daisuke and KANAGAE Kenji (HAGI URAGAMI MUSEUM, Japan)
Preliminary study of the color variation of pottery of the Early Bronze age in China: the case study of pots excavated at the Er-li-tou site
Panel: New Insights into the archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age (Lothar von FALKENHAUSEN and Xu HONG)

The study of pottery in China has mainly focused on the construction of the typological sequence and the system of chronology. However, another aspect of pottery, such as firing technique, symbolic meaning and the contextual feature of use of vessels, has not been sufficiently studied. We can assume that the visual elements of pottery, particularly the color of pottery, will reflect the context of use and the symbolic meaning of pottery, thus coloring technique of pottery would be selected intentionally so as to suit for these aims. Therefore, studying color variation of pottery will contribute to understanding symbolic meaning of the color of vessels, relationship among communities, and the firing technique of pottery. With above perspective in mind, in this paper we analyze the color variation of pottery from Er-li-tou site, identified as a capital of Early Dynasty in China, and discuss about the system of production ,social and contextual meaning of the usage of pottery during the early bronze age in China.

TRINH, Nang Chung (Institute of Archaeology, Vietnamese Academy for Social Sciences, Vietnam)
The relationship between the big stone shovel culture of GuangXi, China and those in North Vietnam.
Panel: NN

In the late Neolithic, in the South of Guang Xi, China formed a series of archaeological sites distinctively characterized by big stone shovels. These artifacts are closely related culture dated from the Late Neolithic to the Early Iron Age ( West Han) In the 7 north and north-east provinces of Viet Nam ( Quang Ninh, Lang son, Cao Bang, Bac Kan, Bac giang, Tuyen Quang ) there have been discoveries of 37 big stone shovels with the same type as those of Guang Xi. The area where those above-mentioned artifacts exist is also the living area of ancient Tay-Nung groups in the North of Vietnam. These are evidences of the interaction between ancient Luo-yue in the South of Guang Xi and those in the North of Vietnam.

TSAI Pei-Ying (NTU, Department of Anthropology, China)
Spatial Analysis and Architectural Structures: A Case Study of Saqacengalj, an Abandoned Paiwan Settlement
Panel: Some New Practices in Taiwanese Archaeological Research (Maaling CHEN and Pochan CHEN)

The purpose of this paper is to study the material remains of Saqacengalj site using spatial analysis to identify the spatial patterns of architectural structures. Intrasite spatial approaches in archaeology are not only focused on the spatial distribution of artifacts and features at the site but also concern site formation processes. Archaeologists often use several quantitative methods to define the spatial clustering of remains and recognize the association of artifacts to define tool kits and activity areas. At the same time, they must realize and evaluate how site formation processes and transformation influence the spatial distribution of archaeological remains. Through studies and the issues indicated above, researchers can interpret and reconstruct prehistoric human behavior and past life. In relation to these, the current paper thus employs a case study of Saqacengalj site from intrasite analysis using the concepts and methods of spatial analysis. Combining the configuration of architectural structures with spatial information on artifacts and features within structures, the possible arrangement of activities and the function of architectural structures could be discussed and recognized.

TSUJITA Jun'ichiro (Kyushu University, Faculty of Humanities, Japan)
The reorganization of interregional relations at the beginning of Kofun Period, Japan : as seen from fragmented / complete Chinese bronze mirrors
Panel: NN

The emergence of keyhole-shaped tumuli in middle 3rd century is the epoch which means the formation of the political order over vast area of Japanese archipelago that centers on Kinki region. It is problematic how we can understand the characteristics of this political order from middle 3rd to 4th century. In this presentation, the analysis for the distribution of imported Chinese bronze mirrors (fragmented / complete) from 1st to 4th century will be carried out. And the author will try to make a model of the process of the beginning of Kofun Period from the perspective of prestige good systems.

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UCHIDA (NAMBA) Junko (Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taiwan)
Typological and Chronological Study on Latest Shang - Earliest Zhou Bronzes
Panel: Shang Archaeology (TANG Jigen, JIN Zhichun, Junko UCHIDA)

The recent discovery of moulds from Xiaomintun site at Yinxu reveals that some of the Bronzes formerly thought as Early Zhou dynasty were cast at Anyang. Some typical types of the decoration on Bronzes of Latest Shang/Earliest Zhou style can be divided into several small phases, thought as Latest Shang, Shang-Zhou Revolution period, Early Zhou I, Early Zhou II. Xiaomintun moulds include the first three phases, it means that Anyang Bronze factory remained rather long time. And I believe this fact will change the historical understanding of that important period.

UCHIDA (NAMBA) Junko with Dr. Yoshiyuki IIZUKA) (Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica,)
A Metallurgical Study on the Bronzes from Anyang Royal Tombs
Panel: Shang Archaeology (TANG Jigen, JIN Zhichun, Junko UCHIDA)

UCHIYAMA Junzo (Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) Japan)
Prehistoric landscape shifts as seen from human-wild boar relations in Jomon Japan
Panel: Prehistoric Landscape Shifts in the East Asian Inland Seas (UCHIYAMA Junzo, Hideyuki ONISHI, Ilona BAUSCH)

 

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VASILEVSKI, Alexander (Russian Academy of Science, Siberian branch, Siberian Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Sakhalin’s Laboratory of Archaeology and Ethnography, Sakhalin State University, Russia)
Stone Age of the Far East of Russia: Current Achievements and Problems of Research
Panel: NN

Study of the Stone Age on the Far East of Russia was done by I. Poljakov, A.Okladnikov, A.Derevjanko, R.Vasiljevski, Zh.Andreeva, V.Medvedev, etc. Problems of stages and geography of Paleolithic are not clear yet. However, the Lower Paleolithic (230-140 ka) data have been received. Due to successes in the study of the Paleolithic and Neolithic sites there is an opportunity of construction of the regional scheme within the period of 20 - 3 thousand radiocarbon years. There is also a new opportunity to decide a problem of the regional attributes of stages of the Epoch of Stone, which is also discussed.

VASILYEV, Sergey (Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Bioarchaeological research on Mesolithic/Neolithic burials from the Chita region (Russia).
Panel: Bioarchaeological research in East Asia (Ekaterina PECHENKINA)

Analysis of fractures, skeletal indicators of physiological stress and activity, as well as body proportions are discussed here for four burials from the Chita region in comparison with other skeletal series from Siberia. Zhindo 1 contained the skeletal remains of an adult accompanied by a child, while Zhindo 2 included two adults with violence related traumatic injuries, all dated to the Neolithic period. The other two burials, Tokui 1 and Tokui 2, are single. Tokui 1 apparently belongs to the Late Neolithic, based on the stylistic features of the accompanying pottery, while Tokui 2 is likely a Mesolithic burial. This study has been completed with financial support from the Program of Fundamental Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences Программы: "Adaptations of peoples and cultures to environmental changes, social and technological transformations".

VERMEERSCH, Sem (Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies, Seoul National University, Korea)
Korean epigraphy – Characteristics, function, study
Panel: NN

In the absence of written chronicles, epigraphy can be of essential importance for the study of history. But in order to use this material responsibly, one should be aware of its specific characteristics and conventions. In this paper I will try to outline the characteristic features and function of Korean epigraphy, mainly stelae; my main aim in this is to provide a framework that integrates historical, archeological and philological information to form a basis for the study of Korean epigraphy.Two problems in particular will be dealt with. The first one concerns the kind of information stelae contain (what do they include? What do they omit?), the second one concerns the information apart from the text itself that stelae can reveal (placement, treatment, manufacturing style etc.), and how to interpret this. Finally, I will also look at how this genre has been studied previously.

VINCENT, Brian (Anthropology Department,University of Otago, New Zealand)
Ceramic Technology Evolution in Southeast Asia 4,000 to 3,000BP
Panel: Prehistoric Archaeology of South China and Southeast Asia (FU Xianguo, LU Lie Dan, LI Guo)

Three decades of research has cast light on significant technological changes in Southeast Asian ceramic technology. These encompass important improvements in potting techniques and regional variations in pottery manufacture. The evidence also holds potential for suggesting the movements of craft specialists, and the communities within which they were imbedded, from one region to another. This data may contain important implications when attempting to correlate linguistic evidence with pottery styles and similar such developments in the wider Asian region.

VOLKOV, Pavel (Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russia)
The functional reconstruction of the Neolithic dwellings from the Russia Far East
Panel: NN

The use-wear analysis of the stone tools from Neolithic sites from the Russian Far East promotes to make a data base for the planigraphic reconstructions of ancient dwellings. On the base of special experimental investigation the territories of habitation on archaeological sites were divided on fire-place complexes, men and women sides, working, rest, sleeping zones, etc. It helps to create the typology and follows to the evolution in the construction of dwelling and in system of the ancient living-space organization.

VOSTRETSOV, Yuri (Russia)
Model of interaction of populations with maritime and agriculture adaptations
Panel: NN

Having examined the four periods that can be considered turning points in cultural evolution of the population of Primorye and neighboring regions. 1. - 5400–5200 BP; 2. - 4700-4300 BP; 3. - 3600 – 3300 BP; 4. - 2500-2200 BP. All the intervals were connected with climate cooling and fall of the sea level, and coincide with emergence of new cultural traditions and adaptations. Paleogeographical events during the intervals were similar. The first and forth are connected with two stages in penetration of agriculture into Primorye.
Having the data allow us to formulate the model explanting of spread of agriculture into coastal area:
- agriculture spread to new territories after and as a result of some ecological stresses, which led to depopulation of the territory;
- agriculture spread to free territories rapidly and had a wavy character;
- emergence of agriculture was connected with appearance of new cultural group .

 

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WANG, Shejiang (La Trobe University, Australia)
New Progress on Paleolithic Archaeological Studies in the Luonan Basin, Eastern Qinling Mountains, China (with Richard COSGROVE, LU Huayu, SHEN Chen, WEI Ming, ZHANG Xiaobing)
Panel: Palaeolithic Archaeology of East Asia (SHEN Chen and Gao XING)

During 1995-2004, more than 268 Paleolithic open-air sites were identified, and 13,581 lithic artifacts were collected from Luonan Basin in the Eastern Qinling Mountains, Central China. In contrast to the open-air sites, the Longyadong Cave was systematically excavated during 1995-1997, and yielded more than 77,000 stone artifacts and faunal remains. Very different lithic assemblages are found separately in the open-air sites (the second terrace) and cave site in Pleistocene. The discoveries of great quantities of faunal remains associated with unusually high concentration of flakes and retouched flake pieces at the Longyadong cave indicates that apart from tool manufacture, early hominids probably carried out same butchering and wood working activities.
During 2004-2007, we surveyed various side tributaries and river valleys of the South Luohe River to identify suitable archaeological sites for further excavation. We identified Huaishuping Site (LP55) on the 4th river terrace at an altitude of 1182m for excavation. A depth of 2.5m was reached with stone artifacts. Another site named Mayigou (Ants Gully) (LP81) and Heling (LP45) at the 3rd terrace 500m away in east was also collected samples from the loess section to compare and contrast the patterns to establish chrono-stratigraphic. Our preliminary results show that these loess deposits are typical aeolian origination with strong weathering process. The loess-paleosol alternations are related to the glacial-interglacial changes of the Northern Hemisphere during the Pleistocene time. Analyses for structure of the soil stratigraphy and depositional process, plus the OSL dating, paleomagnetic stratigraphy analyses as well as the magnetic susceptibility measurements, the results show that commencement of loess deposit in this region is at least since 1.10Ma ago. There are clearly warm/cold and humid/arid changes in the Eastern Qinling Mountains during Pleistocene time. Because some lithic artifacts were collected from the lower parts of loess deposits (about 16m in depth) in the Shangbaichuan Site (LP08) in 1995, it probably indicates that early hominid were living in this region at least since 0.8 Ma ago.
中国东秦岭地区洛南盆地旧石器考古研究的新进展
王社江1, 2, Richard Cosgrove1, 鹿化煜3, 沈 辰4, 魏 鸣1, 张小兵5
(1. Department of Archaeology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia 3086;2. 陕西省考古研究院,西安市, 中国 710054;3. 南京大学地理与海洋学院,南京市,中国 210093;4. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada M5S2C6;5. 洛南县博物馆,陕西省,中国 726100)
摘要 1995年以来,在中国中部南北自然地理过渡地带的东秦岭南洛河上游洛南盆地新发现268处以上旷野露天类型旧石器地点,它们分布在不同时期形成的、高低不同的河流阶地上。遗址的黄土堆积地层年代学研究显示,早在中更新世期间,洛南盆地就已经开始有人类活动,该区域的黄土堆积从中更新世早中期以前已经开始,这里有明显的黄土─古土壤旋回,指示了气候与环境在冰期─间冰期时间尺度的变化过程。旷野露天遗址的石器工业面貌是以大中型石片和二次加工修理的大型石片及砾石工具为代表的、两面加工技术发达的石器工业,遗址中大量存在手斧、薄刃斧、三棱手镐和大型石刀等两面加工技术生产的Acheulian工业类型工具。与旷野类型遗址的发现相对应,1995~1997年间对洛南盆地花石浪龙牙洞遗址发掘中,获得20余种动物化石以及包括人类生活踩踏面、灰烬层、烧石、烧骨和77,000余件石制品在内的大批人类文化遗迹和遗物。龙牙洞遗址的地层堆积属中更新世中晚,它是以中小型石片和简单的修理石片工具为代表的石器工业。
 

WANG Shu Zhi (Institute of Archaeology, CASS, China)
The Studies of Dendroarchaeology in China
Panel: Identification, preservation and study of ancient wooden relics in East Asia (Takao ITOH and Mechtild MERTZ)

This paper sums up briefly the main aspect of dendrochronological study, and introduces mainly the study areas, species, study methods and achievements in dendroarchaeology in China.
中国的树轮考古学
本文简要概述了我国树轮年代学研究的主要方面,并着重介绍了目前树轮考古学研究区域、树种、研究方法和研究成果。

WANG Tao (Graduate School of CAS, China)
Residential patern of the early Neolithic people in Huabei area, China
Panel: NN

文章拟对目前已发现的华北地区新石器时代早期重要遗址如河北徐水南庄头、北京门头沟东胡林、怀柔转年等遗址相关材料进行梳理,归纳这些遗址中有关(或可能相关的)居住遗存的特点,同时考察国内外其它地区大约相近时段的遗址居住相关遗迹的发现状况,并结合民族志材料所反映的近代原始民族居住形式的相关情况,从经济、技术、环境和文化传统等多个方面对华北地区新石器时代早期人类居住形式进行综合考察,为探讨华北地区新石器化进程提供另一个可能的途径。
一、华北地区早期遗址有关居住遗迹的发现状况
二、国内外其它地区同时期遗址居住遗迹发现情况
三、民族志材料所反映的居住遗迹状况
四、影响早期人类居住形式诸方面因素的分析
五、讨论与结论

WANG, Youping (Peking University, China)
The Zhijidong Site and the Transition to Upper Paleaolithic in North China
Panel: Palaeolithic Archaeology of East Asia (SHEN Chen and Gao XING)

New excavation at the Zhijidong site in Xingyang, Henan Province was conducted since 2001. Ten thousands stone artifacts and other information related human activities were found, and dated by OSL and AMS from 50000BP to 30000BP. The preliminary research result on this new discovery indicates that the pebble tool industry occupied the leading position when early human came to this cave. However, the small flake tool industry apparently succeed and develop from the pebble tool tradition since about 40000BP. The process from pebble tool to small flake tool is very important, which may reveal the transition from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic in this region as well as North China.

WEI Miao (Department of Archaeology, Graduate University of Chinese Academic of Sciences China)
Dental wear and oral heath in Bronze-Iron Age populations of northern China: a case study from the Xishan site, Gansu province
Panel: Bioarchaeological research in East Asia (Ekaterina PECHENKINA)

Teeth are one of the most informative and durable parts of the skeleton. Parafunctional and other tooth wear, caries, periodontal disease, and antemortem tooth loss, along with some other oral health indicators and culture-related characteristics were studied on dental remains dating to the Pre-Qin period from Xishan (西山) site, Lixian County (礼县), Gansu province. Based on comparison of the dental characteristics of these remains from Xishan (西山) with those of available samples from other ancient populations in northern China, we draw conclusions about culture, health, diet, and even the subsistence strategy of early Qin people.

WEISSKOPF, Alison (Institute of Archaeology, University College London, UK)
Using phytolith data to understand crop processing stages and labour scales, a case study from Henan
Panel: NN

Archaeobotanical data from phytolith samples collected from 4 sites n Henan is used to interpret crop processing stages and labour scales. Assemblages reflecting changing densities of parts of crop plants can be used to understand where crop processing was taking place and if it was occurring at a household level possibly within kinship groups, or whether it took place on a grander scale requiring labour mobilization. This might suggest changes in scales of organization from communal to more centralised and also a contrast in differentiation between settlements to within settlements.

WEST, Eric (Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific, USA), ARAKI, Ryouko (Commander, Fleet Activities, Yokosuka Japan)
Sharing the Past with the Children of Zushi City, Japan
Panel: Public archaeology in the present and recent past in East Asia (Tim SCHADLA-HALL and Akira MATSUDA)

Located in the Kanagawa Prefecture of Japan, the Ikego Museum has become a regular educational field trip for school children of Zushi City.  While the museum is located within a U.S. Navy housing area, access to the public is regularly permitted to disseminate information about the prehistory of Japan.  The museum contains artifacts that represent continual occupation of a site from the Jamon Era through the Edo Period.   This is a case study of a site in danger of being impacted by a development project, but data recovery prior to construction work, museum curation, and community outreach provides educational benefits.

WIESHEU, Walburgamaria (National School of Anthropology and History, Mexico-City, Mexico )
Considerations about the Nature of the Early State in China
Panel: NN

In recent decades, general evolutionary stages like the state have been considered as too broad theoretical categories, while the common defining criteria derived mainly from the Western experience of the modern Nation-state have been difficult to attest in the early civilizations of the Old and the New World. Too, in the few attempts of cross-cultural comparisons, the applications of different models of state formations, both of the strong and the week type, to the instance of China, have not been very adequate. In this paper I contend that several of the categories established to account for the variability of state configurations in ancient civilizations are not always mutually exclusive types and I try to contribute to the discussion of the nature of the first states in China.

WILLIAMS, James Thomas (Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, China)
Regional Survey of the Mongolian Altai and its wider implications
Panel: NN

This paper will discuss the methodology and feasibility of regional survey in the Mongolian Altai. I will present data from a survey being conducted in the summer of 2007.  The model of archaeological study in Mongolia and China for the most part is excavation of major visible features.  There have been five regional surveys in Mongolia and China. For being two of the largest countries in Asia this is not enough. This paper will explore the research questions that can be answered through regional survey in Asia more specifically northern China and southern Mongolia, and the methodologies taken to answer those questions in the Mongolian Altai.

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XIE, Liye (Insitute of Archaeology, CASS, China) (with CHEN Xingcan, GAO Xing, CHEN Fuyou and LI Yongqiang)
Identifying Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age Stone Spade Blank Thinning Strategies at the Huizui Site, Henan Province, China
Panel: Comparative Study of Early Complex Societies in East Asia and the World (LIU Liu and CHEN Xingcan)

Based on clues from the archaeological record at the Huizui site, we identify a unique assemblage of oolitic dolomite débitage, which we call “coated flakes,” and propose that they are the by-product of a spade blank reduction process. As the result of more than 24 experiments, a vertical block-on-block reduction strategy proved to be a very effective technique for thinning raw material by removing large flakes from parent blocks along thinly-bedded laminae. The similarities between manufacturing traces visible on both archaeological and experimental coated flakes and spade blanks indicate that a vertical block-on-block strategy was employed by the ancient Huizui spade fabricators.
The results of this preliminary research focus our attention on the properties of ground stone tool raw material including dolomite, slate, limestone, and fine-grained sandstone, among others. Ground stone tool fabricators may have taken advantage of the inherent properties of these raw materials and employed appropriate quarrying and manufacturing techniques. Exploring correlations between raw material properties, quarrying techniques, and ground stone tool manufacturing strategies provides uniquely effective perspectives from which to examine the technological transition from chipped stone tools to ground stone tools.
河南偃师灰嘴遗址龙山至二里头文化石铲毛坯去薄技术申论
谢礼晔 陈星灿 高星 陈福友 李永强
灰嘴遗址是龙山到二里头文化时期的石铲制造场。通过对该遗址出土的鲕状白云岩石铲制作遗存的研究,我们发现一种以往未曾引起注意的石片——锈层石片。24个石铲毛坯制作实验证明,锈层石片与石铲石料去薄环节紧密相关,而直向砸击法是非常有效的石料去薄技术。它利用鲕状白云岩具有横向层理的特点,顺层揭取锈层石片,实现去薄目的。出土毛坯和锈层石片上的制作痕迹与我们的实验标本相似,锈层石片的数量在大石片中所占的比例与我们的去薄实验结果接近,而明显有别于塑形环节,证明古代灰嘴石铲制作工匠确实采用了直向砸击法。
这项研究成果提醒我们注意磨制石器石料特性与开采技术,以及石器制作技术的相互关系,为探索打制石器与磨制石器的转变提供独特而有效的视角。

XU, Jay (The Art Institute of Chicago, USA)
Inter- and Intra-regional Interaction in South/Southwest China during the Bronze Age
Panel: Early Complex Societies in the Sichuan Basin and Surrounding Areas (Rowan FLAD)

The regions reviewed in the present study, comprising four modern provinces of Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Guangdong, have been home to the most diverse environmental, ethnical, and cultural conditions in China. In the past half a century, field archaeology has produced a rich record of material cultures of the first millennium BCE in these vast regions in South/Southwest China. The archaeological record suggests, on the one hand, a cultural continuum across the regions, including also the neighboring Bac Bo region of Vietnam in mainland Southeast Asia, as defined by shared artifact types and other cultural traits. On the other hand, it demonstrates a great cultural diversity among the regions, particularly in elite material culture in the form of luxury artifacts.
This study pursues a macro-survey of the elite material cultures of the Bronze Age in those regions through examining luxury artifacts, primarily bronzes, that have been recovered in field archaeology. It explores intra-regional interactions within the regions, as well as inter-regional interactions that South/Southwest China had with regions further in land in China such as Sichuan and Hunan, and with regions further south and west beyond the present borders of China.
 

XU, Jian
Archaeological context of Yelang State: Re-considering Bronze Age sites in Guizhou
Panel: Early Complex Societies in the Sichuan Basin and Surrounding Areas (Rowan FLAD)

Long before a clear image of the bronze age cultures in Guizhou province was achieved, scholars had attempted to identify the archaeological existence of the legendary Yelang state. Although few Bronze Age sites have been thoroughly excavated and studied, three of them, namely Tonggushan in Pu’an, Kele in Hezhang and Zhongshui in Weining are frequently quoted to reconstruct the archaeological culture of the Yelang state. However, the link between the above three sites with Yelang, which is briefly mentioned in the Records of the Great Historian, is very weak and doubtful. The ambiguous statement in traditional writings and the lack of excavated materials with clear indication make it impossible to apply the direct historical approach in locating the Yelang state. The typological analysis shows that these three sites share too limited characteristics to be regarded as belonging to a unified culture. The fact that the material culture at Kele or Zhongshui is similar to that of either Sichuan or Yunnan even casts further doubts on the independence of the bronze culture in Guizhou. The most important, the failure to identify the archaeological image of the Yelang state reminds us to consider the appropriateness of searching a lost state in the mountainous Southwest China by principles based on archaeological experience in Central China.

XU Su-bin (School of Architecture, Tianjin University, China)
The Emergence of a "Modern" Asian Cultural Heritage Aesthetics in Early Twentieth Century—Examining Tadashi Sekino's Survey Records of Chinese Architecture (1906-1935)
Panel: A Century of Preserving Archaeological Heritage in East Asia (PAI Hyung II)

The concept of a Modern "Pan-Asian cultural heritage" can be traced to the first half of the twentieth century when Tokyo University trained architects launched art/architectural surveys in North-East China.  This paper will analyze Tadashi Sekino (1867-1935) photographs,  measurements, rubbings, site- maps, and field notes of temples, palaces, steles, and tombs from Huabei (Northern China), Huanan (Southern China) as well as Manchuria. Sekino’s archives remain invaluable resources a century later for art and architectural historians as well as conservation scientists and construction engineers because they represent the oldest body of "scientifically" recorded heritage information in China.

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YAMAGUCHI Yuji (OKAYAMA University, Japan)
Transformation of settlement system from Late-Final Jomon to the Early Yayoi in Western Japan
Panel: NN

In the Japanese Archipelago, it is widely acknowledged that a major qualitative transformation in subsistence occurred from the complex hunter-gatherer society of Jomon period to the fully agricultural society with wet-rice cultivation in Yayoi period. However, apart from the simple definition, researchers have not agreed about how and why Yayoi period started. This paper aims to examine the changes in subsistence and social relationships of the transitional period with a new perspective focusing on how settlement system changed from the Late-Final Jomon to the Eary Yayoi in Western Japan.

YANG, Dongya (Simon Fraser University, Canada)
Ancient DNA for Archaeological Investigations
Panel: Methods and Issues in the Zooarchaeology of East Asia (YUAN Jing, Richard H. MEADOW)

DNA from archaeological human, animal and plant remains can render precise genus, species and even individual identifications, making it a desirable tool for archaeological investigations. However, many studies have demonstrated that the application of ancient DNA analysis to archaeology is not as straightforward as previously thought. The paper will review technical difficulties associated with ancient DNA analysis and suggest practical guidelines for preventing DNA contamination. The paper will argue strongly that field archaeologists should play more active roles in ancient DNA research by participating in research design, sample selection, data interpretation and integration of genetic and archaeological evidence.

YANG Jianhua (Jilin University, China)
The Inheriting and Developing role of Upper Xiajiadian Culture in the Northern Bronze of China
Panel: NN

The Upper Xiajiadian Culture were mainly in the Western Zhou and the beginning of the Eastern Zhou, so it was just between the first climax of northern bronze characterized by curved dagger or knife with animal head, Jungle head and ring head from the late Shang Dynasty, and the second climax by short swords with opposing Griffin-shaped pommel, pick-axe and waist plaque from the middle of Spring-Autumn period.
First of all, Upper Xiajiadian Culture inherited from northern Bronze of Late Shang along the northern belt, such as helmet and cheek-piece, from the curved knives with animal head pommel of Late shang period distributed in Yanshan Moutain area, and from south Yanshan Moutain of the same period, such as socketed Ge and Yue, which combined both Central Plain style and northern style together. The areas where the bronze were inherited by Upper Xiajiadian Culture were near the Central Plain, not near the Steppe, which suggests that the northern area near the Central Plain may be the cradle of the northern Bronze of late Shang.
The Upper Xiajiadian Culture began to decline after its prosperity in early Spring-Autumn period, but its influence remained in the northern belt of the Eastern Zhou Period. According to the distance with the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, the nearest is eastern part of North Hebei, where remained mainly Upper Xiajiadian Culture bronze, such as sword and Knife with sawtooth-shaped handle; in Inner- Mongolia there were button and deformed 联珠饰 which were for the new need for decoration of beld; in the far Gansu, there was only few remains from the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, such as armature of horse.
The analysis of the inheriting and developing role of Upper Xiajiadian Culture in the Northern Bronze of China, we can see origins of some bronze of Upper Xiajiadian Culture and the relations of different northern bronzes, and appreciate its important role in the development of northern bronze.

夏家店上层文化在中国北方青铜器发展中的传承作用
夏家店上层文化的青铜器的年代主要在西周时期到两周之际,正处于北方青铜器商末周初以兽首、铃首和环首的曲柄刀、剑等器物为代表的第一次高峰和春秋中期到战国末期以双鸟回首剑、鹤嘴斧以及动物形装饰的竿头饰和腰牌饰等为代表的第二次高峰之间。
夏家店上层文化的青铜器继承了商末周初北方青铜器的一些传统,其中一部分是来自长城沿线的商末青铜器,有青铜盔、蛇首兽首马镳等;还有一部分是来自当地燕山南北的商末青铜器,主要是兽首刀;还有一部分是来自年代大体同时的燕山南麓的北方青铜器,如中原与北方结合的有銎戈与钺。这三个来源的共性是从与中原相近的北方到与草原相近的北方,这暗示着中国商代晚期的北方青铜器很可能是起源于长城沿线。
在西周与东周之际这一文化达到鼎盛阶段之后,开始逐渐衰退。但是它的影响仍然残留在后来的附近文化中。这些影响按其与夏家店上层文化的距离可以分为冀北东部、冀北西部与北方长城沿线的内蒙古地区和甘宁地区。这些影响由近及远,呈逐渐递减的趋势。对冀北地区东周北方文化的早期影响最大,有夏家店上层文化中最主要的銎柄剑和齿柄刀;对冀北中西部的影响主要是齿柄刀;对内蒙古地区的影响有泡饰和联珠饰,而且联珠饰在内蒙古地区得到改造,从而适应了装饰腰带的需要;对甘宁地区的影响只是零星的,目前的发现只有马甲饰。
分析夏家店上层文化的青铜器在中国北方青铜文化中的传承作用,一方面可以明确夏家店上层文化一些青铜器的源流以及各地青铜文化之间的联系,另一方面可以明确夏家店上层文化在中国北方青铜文化发展中的地位。

YANG Zhefeng (Peking University, China)
The Changes of Tomb Structure in Han China
Panel: Mortuary analysis in Chinese Archaeology (Guolong LAI)

This paper examines the structural changes in tombs of the Han dynasty. It first outlines the distribution pattern of different types of tomb structure, and then argues that the major changes in the structure of Han tombs include the replacement of wooden structure by brick, stone, or stone-and-brick mixed structure, and the interplay between catacomb tomb and shaft tomb. It also discusses various regional features in Han tomb construction and analyses the impact of the divergent geographic environment as well as social and political changes on the development of tomb structure.

YANKOWSKI, Andrea (USA)
Salt & Salt Pots: A study of premodern salt production in Southeast Asia
Panel: NN

This paper presents the results of recent ethnoarchaeological and historical research on traditional salt production in the Philippines and Southeast Asia.  It highlights the local technologies used and ways in which earthenware pots are used in this process.  Moreover, it contributes to our growing body of knowledge on the economic and cultural importance of salt in premodern societies of Asia

YANSHINA Oksana (archaeology department of Peter The Greate Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) of The Russian Academy of Sciences, Sankt-Petersburg)
Bronze age in Russian Far East: new data of phenomena
Panel: NN

The new data on Bronze age in Russian Far East have been received during last ten years. They permit to offer a new concept of understanding all this period. There are two the most important points of this concept. The first is the systematization of archaeological sites of this period, we have today a new chronology, new periodization and new grouping of these sites. The second is a new sights at ethnocultural processes in Russian Far East in Bronze age: an origin of the population, cross-cultural contacts and other. In this report will be allow to compar old and new schemes.

YAO, Alice (University of Michigan, USA)
Variability in Bronze Age community patterns of the Qujing Basin, Yunnan
Panel: Early Complex Societies in the Sichuan Basin and Surrounding Areas (Rowan FLAD)

In this paper, I examine mortuary ritual among three different Bronze Age communities located in the Qujing Basin, a critical pass along the Southwest Silk Road (~ 4th c. BC). Situated between the polities of "Dian and Yelang Kingdoms", this area presumably played an important role in the interactions between these powerful neighbors. Intra-community comparisons of the three sites in Qujing demonstrate social identities are not uniformly recognized or produced across the three communities while inter-community comparisons underscore their different size and scale. These observations offer insights into the organization of the regional network while exposing the competing ideologies constructing each community.

YE, Wa (Getty Conservation Institute, USA)
Cemetery as Landmark of Social and Moral Values: Archaeological Analysis of the Xingyuan Tang tombs
Panel: Mortuary analysis in Chinese Archaeology (Guolong LAI)

In this paper, through analyzing the Xingyuan ( Yanshi , Henan ) Tang cemetery's layout and family-oriented tomb clusters, I argue that the cemetery is a permanent landmark symbolizing the social and moral values of the Tang elite families and eminent clans. The layout of the Xingyuan cemetery is characterized by family clusters with clear generational hierarchies. Having left their ancestral homes and lacking shared estates or memorial halls for all members of the clan, these eminent clans used a burial ground to serve as a magnet to bring the scattered members together in a final resting place. An analysis of tomb structure also reveals the importance of family cemeteries to the eminent clans of the Tang.

YI, Hua (Institute of Ethnology Anthropology, CASS, China)
A Perspective on Yi & Xia: The Transformation in East Asian Neolithic-Bronze Age
Panel: NN

The historical records and legends indicate that East Asia was the territory of Yi & Man before Xia dynasty. Archaeological discoveries let us know that there was no differentiation between pastoral nomadism and agrarian sedentism before 2000 B.C. It was Xia or nomads to introduce bronze and nomadic culture. sedentary agriculture was mainly originated in East Asia and pastoral nomadic culture came basically from West or Central Asia. The combination of Yi and Xia initiated the history of China and formed the special cultural tradition of East Asia. The admixture of nomadic and sedentary cultures constructed the characteristics of Ancient East Asia. This paper put forward a theory of dual origins of East Asian culture that explains the conflict between indigenous and west origin hypotheses of ancient Chinese culture and develops an interpretive framework for East Asian and Eurasian cultures.

YIN, Yi-Chih (Department of Anthropology, National Taiwan University, China)
Reconstructing the prehistoric Taiwan jade technology: Definitions and experiments.
Panel: Some New Practices in Taiwanese Archaeological Research (Maaling CHEN and Pochan CHEN)

Taiwan has a very mature jade industry during the late Neolithic period.  Various jade artifacts, including spears, adzes, beads, earrings, necklaces and bracelets, were discovered, and increased our understanding of ancient life.  However, scholars still cannot have a common agreement on the manufacturing techniques of these jade artifacts since they do not have experiments on jade production.  With observation and simulated operations, I will examine previous hypotheses of various jade technologies, especially jade cutting and drilling.  Furthermore, I am trying to reconstruct the whole working procedures of jade craft.  This reconstruction not only reveals the jade technologies in prehistoric Taiwan, but will also be the fundamental acknowledgements for further research, including social organization and trade.

YOKOYAMA, Misao (Kyoto University, Japan)
Wood identification of traditional Japanese temple with Chinise style -Shoindo of Manfukuji.
Panel: Identification, preservation and study of ancient wooden relics in East Asia (Takao ITOH and Mechtild MERTZ)

In Japan many historical buildings are still preserved. Numerous traditional wooden buildings can be seen especially in the former capitals Kyoto and Nara, some of them are even listed as a World Cultural Heritage of the UNESCO or registered as a National Property of Japan. In general, it is not allowed to get samples from traditional buildings listed as a National Property. Fortunately, we were given the opportunity to get samples from the Shoin-do of the Manpukuji temple at the occasion of their repair. The manfukuji is the Japanese main temple of a sect of Chinese Buddhism.

YOSHII,  Hideo (Faculty of Letters, Kyoto University, Japan)
Photography and Archaeology: The Re-construction of Sokkuram in early twentieth century Korea
Panel: A Century of Preserving Archaeological Heritage in East Asia (PAI Hyung II)

This paper will discuss the role of archaeo-photography practised by colonial archaeologists and professional photographers using the case study of the ruins of Sokkuram, the late 8th century cave temple in Kyungju. The colonial regime’s efforts to preserve Sokkuram for tourism was the largest scale archaeological re-construction project undertaken by Masatake Terauchi, who was installed as the Governor General of Korea in 1910.  Using a variety of photographic resources from excavation reports to commercial postcards, my paper will demonstrate the various architectural transformations engineered by Sekino from 1909 to 1936.

YUAN Xuemei (Beijing University, China)
Geological differences of jades and their significance with regard to the Late Neolithic jade-working cultures of Early China
Panel: NN

As related in the recent jointly-authored publication, Zhongguo Xiuyan Yu [Xiuyan Jade of China], Science Press, 2007, and my thesis, Yanliao, Haidai, Zhongyuan dichu Xinshiqi shidai Yuqi Yanjiu, Ph.D. Thesis, Beijing University,  2005,  geological properties of northeastern jade may be distinguished by weight, chemistry, hardness, color, density, and properties of alteration.  In the present context, major differences between Xiuyan jade and those exploited by other Late Neolithic cultures are defined and compared, using both geological and archaeological data.

Z

ZHAI, Shengcheng (Nanjing Forestry University, China)
Database of tree species and uses for wooden objects
Panel: Identification, preservation and study of ancient wooden relics in East Asia (Takao ITOH and Mechtild MERTZ)

In ancient times, people chose wood as one of the important materials for different uses, such as agricultural implements, boats, sacrifice materials, coffins, musical instruments, and wooden buildings. It is very useful for archaeologists, wood scientists and historians to do deep research by comparing the different wooden artifacts and the wood species they are made of. Wood identification also has benefits for people of wood restoration. If restorers know the tree species and its characters, it will be easier to preserve and restore the excavated wooden object in an appropriate way. Based on a number of wood identification reports, we established a database of tree species and uses for archeological wooden objects. It includes the artifact type, the wood species (Chinese and scientific tree name), the historic site, the era, the province and the reference numbers of the archaeological reports accordingly. The purpose of this database is to get the statistic data of wood uses, which has not yet been done in China.

ZHAMBALTAROVA, Elena and Luidmila LBOVA (Museum of Buryat Scientific Center CD RAS, Russia)
Funeral complexes of a neolith - an early bronze age of the Western Transbaikalia in a cultural context of the Baikal region (results of the formalized analysis)
Panel: NN

Generalization of the separated data saved up to the present moment and data on funeral complexes of Transbaikalia and northeast Mongolia, their formalized analysis and presence of series of radiocarbon dating (around 7 500 – 3 000 RCYBR) of burial grounds and separate burials define offered correlation constructions. The analysis of funeral sites of this single-crop territory allows drawing a conclusion that Neolithic traditions of funeral ceremonia are steady and continuing the existence during later time, including early stages of an epoch of metal.
This study was partially supported by grants from the Russian Academy of Sciences, Program No. 21.1, Project 1.5; Russian Foundation for Humanities (RGNF, N 06-01-00466a).

ZHANG, Dongju (MOE Key Laboratory of West China's Environmental System, Lanzhou University, China)
Environmental background of human activity in the Western Loess Plateau during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (with Loukas Barton, Chen Fahu, Robert Bettinger, Christopher Morgan, Wang Hui)
Panel: Palaeolithic Archaeology of East Asia (SHEN Chen and Gao XING)

Despite decades of attention, the origin of modern humans in East Asia is still unclear. For many animal populations, migration, extirpation and competition often correlate with significant environmental change, and evidence suggests the same may be true for the genus Homo. In northeast Asia, it seems likely that the disappearance of archaic Homo sapiens, the arrival of anatomically modern Homo sapiens, the potential for mixture between the two, or even continuous local evolution, all took place within the environmental context of Marine Isotope Stage 3. The Hulu River drainage in China’s western Loess Plateau is well suited to paleoenvironmental reconstruction, geochronology, and archaeology during MIS3. We hope to characterize the environmental context of hominid land-use during this interval to help identify changes in hominid biogeography in an area where fossil evidence is not available. Here we report on the occurrence of hominid occupation zones in upland lacustrine/wetland environments in the western Loess Plateau during MIS3. We evaluate these findings in light of local and regional patterns of hominid land use during this important period of the Upper Paleolithic.

ZHANG, Hai (Beijing University, China)
A new perspective for the formation of Erlitou Culture and early state in Central PLAIn of China
Panel: New Insights into the archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age (Lothar von FALKENHAUSEN and Xu HONG)

Culture history study is long deemed as low class research level by some scholars in the West. However in academe of China, it’s still in hot discussion till now. Is it out of date or instead of an insight approach to the comprehension of social transition? A new study of the formation of Erlitou Culture by traditional method of culture history can give the answer. The trajectory of multi-cultures syncretism to Central Plain of China provides an insight understanding to the formation of social complexity among adjacent regions in different range of levels. It’s also beneficial for the construction of hypothesis to the further studies of origin and early development of Chinese Bronze Civilization in Central Plain.

ZHANG Herong (Guizhou Provincial Institute of Archaeology, China)
Culture change in Guizhou, from the prehistoric period to the Han dynasty---a focus on Zhongshui sites (coauthor: Li Fei, ZHANG He-rong)
Panel: Early Complex Societies in the Sichuan Basin and Surrounding Areas (Rowan FLAD)

从史前到汉代,贵州古代文明走过了一个由多元并存的土著文化时期向以汉文化为主体的汉代过渡的历程。近年我们在贵州威宁中水的新发现,正好勾勒出这样一个历史线索。由于地处云贵川三省交界,威宁中水及周邻地区相关遗址的研究,成为揭开诸多西南夷问题的关键。
From prehistory to the Han period, the development of civilization in Guizhou underwent a course of development from autochothonous cultures with local roots to the Han period when Han culture became dominant. In recent years, new discoveries in the Zhongshui region of Weining, Guizhou have established the outline of this transition process. In the region where Guizhou, Yunnan, and Sichuan come together, research on the discoveries in the Zhongshui area and surrounding regions provide key data in understanding early societies in the Southwest.

ZHANG Hua (Simon Fraser University, Canada)
The Study of Non-metric Cranial Traits in the Northern Chinese of Ancient Times
Panel: Bioarchaeological research in East Asia (Ekaterina PECHENKINA)

A comparative study of 16 non-metric cranial variations within 336 individuals of Northern Chinese of ancient times revealed population affinities among these different geographic groups. Three cranial series (total 366) collected from Northern China, ranging in age from Neolithic Age to Wei-Jin Period. The principal coordinate analysis as well as Smith’s Mean Measure of Divergence (MMDs) and the cluster analysis were used to calculate the biological distances among these groups. According to these analyses, the discrepancy of the frequencies of non-metric cranial traits between different geographic groups of population does occur. The method of the non-metric cranial traits analysis shows significant potential in terms of population migration, population affinities, forensic identification, and etiology.
 

ZHANG Liangren (University of Southern California, USA)
Metallurgy and Social Inequality in Central Eurasia
Panel: Eurasian metallurgy and society (ZHANG Liangren)

This paper examines the emergence of social inequality in Central Eurasia. Ancient communities were egalitarian internally, but they showed marked differences among them in economic strength. This paper further suggests that these differences were rooted in the uneven distribution of copper ores and the uneven degree of metal production. Communities in the ore-rich Southern Urals were actively involved in metal production and metal trade with communities in the ore-deficient Don and Volga River Valleys. Because of the high value of metals, the former were able to amass greater wealth and political power than the latter.

ZHANG Yue (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, CAS, China)
Zooarchaeological Analysis On Faunal Remains Of Ma'anshan Cave Site, Southwest China
Panel: Palaeolithic Archaeology of East Asia (SHEN Chen and Gao XING)

There were thousands of bone fragments found in Ma'anshan cave site (LSA) in southwest China, which will be studied in this research. I will focus on how Ma'anshan hominid got, removed, consumed games, how they disposed bone residues, and how these behaviors changed. In the previous research, the deposit was divided into two parts. In the lower one the fossils mainly belong to big ungulates, but in the upper primarily belong to the small ones. Does it mean that Ma'anshan hominid's prey ability got backwards? Is it just the strategy to accommodate the changed paleoenvironment? Is it possible that two different human groups derive the difference? Or the extinction of very big ungulates began in the upper part which maybe led to the decreasing number of the megafauna? Will we find the other detailed differences on, such as, hominid’s age selection of preys, shlepping behaviors, the technique of disarticulating and the deposition of animal bones?
The bone surface modification, mortality profiles, skeletal element profiles will be studied to discern the more detailed difference. Also the sedimentary, the sporopollen samples will be studied to identify if the paleoenvironment changed too acutely to change the Ma'anshan hominid's behavior. More accurate dating will be taken to see if the interval of the upper and lower parts lasted long, which can provide evidence on whether it is possible that two different groups had occupied the cave one by one. Furthermore, faunal assemblages in different sites of this region will be studied to discern when the very big animals began to extinct.
马鞍山洞穴遗址出土的动物骨骼研究
张乐
马鞍山遗址位于贵州桐梓县境内,离县城东南2公里左右。该遗址1980年发现,1981年试掘,并发表了简报,肯定了其性质。1986年作了首次系统发掘,发掘区域位于洞口东部,面积约25平方米,发掘深度为2.1~2.7米,分为9个自然层,其中第1层为扰乱层,第2层发现很多现代遗物,第9层为志留系韩家店组页岩风化壳层,其余各层出土大量石器和哺乳动物化石且没有发现现代遗物。1990年进行了第二次系统发掘,面积约为23平方米,发掘区域位于洞穴中部,最近处距1986年发掘区域只有1.5米左右。
用第3层出土的鹿牙测出铀系法年代为18000±1000年,用同层出土的碎骨测出14C年代为15100±1500年,用第8层出土的鹿牙测出铀系法年代为53000年左右,因此马鞍山遗址的绝对年代几乎跨越了整个旧石器时代晚期,并向中期过渡。在第7-8层发现的石器粗大,一般长度超过40毫米,不见磨制骨器,在第3-6层发现的石器长度则大多数少于40毫米,还发现了磨制的骨锥、骨镞和刻纹的骨棒,而且在第6层和第7层之间有清楚的侵蚀面,代表一个沉积间断,这说明第7-8层与第3-6层无论在时代上还是文化组合上可能都存在着较大差异。
本文以该遗址出土的动物骨骼为研究对象,以阐释马鞍山远古人类处理猎物的行为及其变化。马鞍山遗址第7- 8层发现的动物化石多属大型动物,主要包括水牛,中国犀和东方剑齿象。在第3-6层发现的则多属水鹿等中小型动物。造成这两个部分动物群差异的原因何在?本文首先利用NISP和MNI量化两个动物群的差异,然后研究这两个动物骨骼组合的死亡年龄分布、骨骼单元分布和骨骼表面改造痕迹,分析洞穴被占据期间马鞍山原始人类在获取、搬运、消费猎物以及在处理动物骨骼的行为上是否也存在着显著的差异。最后将从环境的角度切入,若沉积粒度和孢粉分析指示的上下两部分环境差异显著,即可以考虑器物组合和动物群的差异可能是远古人类为了适应环境的变化而改变了生存策略;若无显著变化,则要考虑差异可能是不同的人群先后分别占领洞穴的结果,详细的测年可以提供一定的证据,如果第6层和第7层之间的时间间断很长,那么两个人群先后占领洞穴的可能性就越大。当然也有可能是某种特殊的猎鹿技术或工具在上部堆积形成时期被发明,或者洞穴的功能分区在上下两部分发生了改变而导致大小动物骨骼堆放发生了改变(这种功能分区在Binford对Nunamiut的民族学考察中有所记录),但这两种假设还有待于对石制品的详细研究以及对洞穴大面积科学系统的发掘。

ZHAO Chaohong (Beijing University, China)
Jades of Northeast and Northwest China, as Reflected in the Archaeological Record of Late Neolithic China
Panel: Jade Age Jades and Jade Age Material Sources (Elizabeth CHILDS-JOHNSON)

As related in the recent publication, Zhongguo Xiuyan Yu [Xiuyan Jade of China], Science Press, 2007, it is evident that Xiuyan jade, native to mines and quarries in the Xiuyan area of Liaoning was exploited throughout north and northeast China from ca. 6000-2000BCE. Hetian jade, native to mostly river beds and rock cliffs of Xinjiang, on the other hand, appears to be prevalent in northwest China during a comparable, yet slightly later phase of the Late Neolithic and early historic period.  Comparing properties and sources of these two major types of nephrites, it will become apparent that during the Late Neolithic the two appear to differ chronologically in terms of exploitation: Xiuyan jade is exploited throughout north and northeast China (Xinglongwa, Hongshan, Dawenkou, Shandong Longshan, Taosi) from about 6000-2000BCE whereas the use of Hetian jade appears slightly later, as represented by the Qijia culture of northwest China of ca.2000-1000BCE.

ZHAO Zhijun (Institute of Archaeology, CASS, China)
NN
Panel: New data and issues of archaeobotany in East Asia (Gary CRAWFORD, Hiroki OBATA, Zhijun ZHAO)

ZHENG, Yunfei (Zhejiang Provancial Institute of Relics and Archaeology, China)
The Process of Prehistorical Agriculture in the Yantze Delta
Panel: New data and issues of archaeobotany in East Asia (Gary CRAWFORD, Hiroki OBATA, Zhijun ZHAO)

Based on analizing the plant remains from the archaeological sites dating from 8000 B.C to 2000 B.C in the Yantze Delta, the prehistorical agriculture, mainly rice cultivation, was discussed and described

ZHUSHCHIKHOVSKAY Irina (Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of Peoples of Far East, Russian Academy of Sciences)
Inter-regional Interaction in Pacific Northeast Asia: Early Pottery, Bronze and Iron Technology, and the Emergence of Social Complexity (with C. Melvin Aikens and Song Nai Rhee)
Panel: Inter-regional interaction in East Asian Prehistory and History (Francis ALLARD)

Inter-regional interaction is ancient in Pacific Northeast Asia, beginning in terminal Pleistocene times. A great zone extending from the Russian Far East through Korea, Japan, and China displays a cultural unity that begins with shared Upper Paleolithic technologies. It continues with the widespread emergence of pottery technology during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition and a later spread of bronze and iron technology, and culminates in later Holocene times with the emergence of social complexity at varying levels across the same zone. This deep history documents a complex and continuing interplay of environmental, technological, and sociological variables that has given rise to a whole series of unique yet unquestionably interwoven traditional cultures of far northeast Asia.